JULIUS CAESAR NGC Certified VF Ancient Silver Roman Coin THAPSUS Battle i60151
Item: i60151 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Julius Caesar – Roman General, Politician, Hero & Dictator Silver Denarius 18mm (3.68 grams) Struck 46 B. Reference: Roman Silver Coins Vol. 467/1b Certification: NGC Ancients VF 4375823-090 COS. DICT ITER, head of Ceres right. AVGVR above simpulum, sprinkler, capis and lituus, PONT MAX below, M (Manus) in field. This coinage was probably struck to pay his successful legions after the battle of Thapsus, 6 April B. The head of Ceres is emblematic of Africa and it’s corn-producing wealth. The reverse the reverse refers to Caesar’s office of Pontifex Maximus. The Pontifex Maximus (Latin , literally: “greatest pontiff “) was the high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome. This was the most important position in the ancient Roman religion , open only to patricians until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. A distinctly religious office under the early Roman Republic , it gradually became politicized until, beginning with Augustus , it was subsumed into the Imperial office. Its last use with reference to the emperors is in inscriptions of Gratian (reigned 375383) who, however, then decided to omit the words “pontifex maximus” from his title. The Battle of Thapsus took place on April 6, 46 BC near Thapsus (in modern Tunisia). The Republican forces of the Optimates , led by Quintus Caecillius Metellus Scipio , clashed with the veteran forces loyal to Julius Caesar. Thapsus in relation to Rome. In 49 BC, the last Republican civil war was initiated after Julius Caesar defied senatorial orders to disband his army following the conclusion of hostilities in Gaul. He crossed over the Rubicon river with the 13th Legion, a clear violation of Roman Law, and marched to Rome. The Optimates fled to Greece under the command of Pompey since they were incapable of defending the city of Rome itself against Caesar. Led by Caesar, the Populares followed, but were greatly outnumbered and defeated in the Battle of Dyrrhachium. Still outnumbered, Caesar recovered and went on to decisively defeat the Optimates under Pompey at Pharsalus. Pompey then fled to Egypt, where to Caesar’s consternation, Pompey was assassinated. The remaining Optimates , not ready to give up fighting, clustered in the African provinces and organized a resistance. Its leaders were Marcus Cato (the younger) and Caecilius Metellus Scipio. Other key figures in the resistance were Titus Labienus , Publius Attius Varus , Lucius Afranius , Marcus Petreius and the brothers Sextus and Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey’s sons). King Juba I of Numidia was a valuable local ally. After the pacification of the Eastern provinces, and a short visit to Rome, Caesar followed his opponents to Africa and landed in Hadrumetum (modern Sousse , Tunisia) on December 28, 47 BC. The Optimates gathered their forces to oppose Caesar with astonishing speed. Their army included 40,000 men (about 8 legions), a powerful cavalry force led by Caesar’s former right hand man, the talented Titus Labienus , forces of allied local kings and. The two armies engaged in small skirmishes to gauge the strength of the opposing force, during which two legions switched to Caesar’s side. Meanwhile, Caesar expected reinforcements from Sicily. In the beginning of February, Caesar arrived in Thapsus and besieged the city, blocking the southern entrance with three lines of fortifications. The Optimates , led by Metellus Scipio, could not risk the loss of this position and were forced to accept battle. Metellus Scipio’s army circled Thapsus in order to approach the city by its northern side. Anticipating Caesar’s approach, it remained in tight battle order flanked by its elephant cavalry. Caesar’s position was typical of his style, with him commanding the right side and the cavalry and archers flanked. The threat of the elephants led to the additional precaution of reinforcing the cavalry with five cohorts. One of Caesar’s trumpeters sounded the battle. Caesar’s archers attacked the elephants, causing them to panic and trample their own men. The elephants on the left flank charged against Caesar’s center, where Legio V Alaudae was placed. This legion sustained the charge with such bravery that afterwards they wore an elephant as a symbol. After the loss of the elephants, Metellus Scipio started to lose ground. Caesar’s cavalry outmaneuvered its enemy, destroyed the fortified camp, and forced its enemy into retreat. King Juba’s allied troops abandoned the site and the battle was decided. Roughly 10,000 enemy soldiers wanted to surrender to Caesar, but were instead slaughtered by his army. This action is unusual for Caesar, who was known as a merciful victor. Contend Caesar had an epileptic seizure during the battle and was not fully conscious for its aftermath. Scipio himself escaped, only to commit suicide months later in a naval battle near Hippo Regius. Scheme of the battle: 17th-century engraving after Palladio. The elephants are individually depicted. Following the battle, Caesar renewed the siege of Thapsus, which eventually fell. Caesar proceeded to Utica , where Cato the Younger was garrisoned. On the news of the defeat of his allies, Cato committed suicide. Caesar was upset by this and is reported by Plutarch to have said: Cato, I must grudge you your death, as you grudged me the honour of saving your life. Opposition, however, would rise again. Titus Labienus, the Pompeian brothers and others had managed to escape to the Hispania provinces. The civil war was not finished, and the Battle of Munda would soon follow. The Battle of Thapsus is generally regarded as marking the last large scale use of war elephants in the West. Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 BC 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. As a politician, Caesar made use of popularist tactics. During the late 60s and into the 50s BC, he formed political alliances that led to the so-called First Triumvirate , an extra-legal arrangement with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their factional attempts to amass power for themselves were opposed within the Roman Senate by the optimates , among them Marcus Porcius Cato and Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus , with the sometime support of Marcus Tullius Cicero. Caesar’s conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world to the North Sea , and in 55 BC he also conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse Pompey’s, while the death of Crassus contributed to increasing political tensions between the two triumviral survivors. Political realignments in Rome finally led to a stand-off between Caesar and Pompey, the latter having taken up the cause of the Senate. With the order that sent his legions across the Rubicon , Caesar began a civil war in 49 BC from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world. After assuming control of government, he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed ” dictator in perpetuity” (dictator perpetuo). A group of senators, led by Marcus Junius Brutus , assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, hoping to restore the normal running of the Republic. However, the result was another Roman civil war , which ultimately led to the establishment of a permanent autocracy by Caesar’s adopted heir, Gaius Octavianus. In 42 BC, two years after his assassination, the Senate officially sanctified Caesar as one of the Roman deities. Much of Caesar’s life is known from his own Commentaries (Commentarii) on his military campaigns, and other contemporary sources such as the letters and speeches of his political rival Cicero , the historical writings of Sallust , and the poetry of Catullus. Many more details of his life are recorded by later historians, such as Appian , Suetonius , Plutarch , Cassius Dio and Strabo. The item “JULIUS CAESAR NGC Certified VF Ancient Silver Roman Coin THAPSUS Battle i60151″ is in sale since Friday, March 17, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Republic (300 BC-27 BC)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
- Composition: Silver
- Certification: NGC
- Grade: VF
- Certification Number: 4375823-090
- Denomination: Denarius