PONTIUS PILATE Ancient Biblical Roman Jerusalem Coin JESUS CHRIST Time i36582
Item: i36582 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Pontius Pilate – (chiefly known for crucifixion of Jesus) ruled 26-36 A. Procurator of Judaea under Emperor Tiberius, Roman Emperor: 14-37 A. Bronze Prutah 14mm (1.79 grams) Jerusalaem 30-31 A. Lituus, surrounded by TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC. Date LIZ = year 18 = 31 C. Numismatic Note: Authentic ancient biblical coin, issued by the Roman procurator whom had Jesus Christ crucified. Very rare, unique piece of ancient history. The lituus was a crooked wand similar in shape to the top part of a. Used as a cult instrument in. To mark out a ritual space in the sky a. The passage of birds through this templum indicated divine favor or disfavor for a given undertaking. The lituus was also used as a symbol of office for the college of the augurs to mark them out as a priestly group. Ecce Homo (“Behold the Man”), Antonio Ciseri’s depiction of Pilate presenting a scourged Jesus to the people of Jerusalem. Pontius Pilatus known in the English-speaking world as Pontius Pilate was the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea , from AD 2636. He is best known as the judge at Jesus’ trial and the man who authorized the crucifixion of Jesus. As prefect, he served under Emperor Tiberius. Pilate avoids responsibility for the death of Jesus. In the Gospel of Matthew , Pilate washes his hands to show that he was not responsible for the execution of Jesus and reluctantly sends him to his death. The Gospel of Mark , depicting Jesus as innocent of plotting against the Roman Empire. In the Gospel of Luke , Pilate not only agrees that Jesus did not conspire against Rome, but Herod Antipas , the Tetrarch of Galilee , also finds nothing treasonable in Jesus’ actions. We find in the Gospel of John , Pilate states I find no guilt in him [Jesus] and he asks the Jews if Jesus should be released from custody. Pontius Pilate’s title was traditionally thought to have been procurator , since Tacitus speaks of him as such. Pilate could command legionary forces but only small ones, and so in military situations, he would have to yield to his superior, the legate of Syria, who would descend into Palestine with his legions as necessary. As governor of Iudaea, Pilate would have small auxiliary forces of locally recruited soldiers stationed regularly in Caesarea and Jerusalem. The total number of soldiers at his disposal numbered in the range of 3000. According to the canonical Christian Gospels, Pilate presided at the trial of Jesus and, despite stating that he personally found him not guilty of a crime meriting death, handed him over to crucifixion. Jesus was brought to Pilate by the Sanhedrin , who had arrested Jesus and questioned him themselves. Pilate’s main question to Jesus was whether he considered himself to be the King of the Jews in an attempt to assess him as a potential political threat. Are you the king of the Jews? “It is as you say”, Jesus replied. Pilate appears to have been reluctant to allow the crucifixion of Jesus, finding no fault with him. Even Pilate’s wife spoke to him on Jesus’ behalf. It was the custom of the Roman governor to release one prisoner at Passover. Pilate brought out Barabbas a murderer, and told the crowd to choose between releasing Barabbas or Jesus as per the custom, in the hopes of getting them to request the release of Jesus. However, the crowd demanded the release of Barabbas and said of Jesus, Crucify him! What evil has he done? ” The crowd continued shouting, “Crucify him! Gospel of John gives more detail about that dialogue taking place between Jesus and Pilate. Jesus seems to confirm the fact of his kingship, although immediately explaining, that “[his] kingdom [was] not of this world”; of far greater importance for the followers of Christ is his own definition of the goal of his ministry on earth at the time. Jesus thus describes his mission: came into the world… To bear witness to the truth ; and all who are on the side of truth listen to [my] voice”, to which Pilate famously replied, ” What is truth? In all gospel accounts, Pilate is reluctant to condemn Jesus, but is eventually forced to give in when the crowd becomes unruly and he was reminded that Jesus’s claim to be king is a challenge to Roman rule and to the Roman deification of Caesar. Pilate’s term as prefect of Judaea ended after an incident recounted by Josephus. A large group of Samaritans had been persuaded by an unnamed man to go to Mount Gerizim in order to see sacred artifacts allegedly buried by Moses. But at a village named Tirathana, before the crowd could ascend the mountain, Pilate sent in a detachment of cavalry and heavy-armed infantry, who in an encounter with the firstcomers in the village slew some in a pitched battle and put the others to flight. Many prisoners were taken, of whom Pilate put to death the principal leaders and those who were most influential. The Samaritans then complained to Vitellius , Roman governor of Syria, who sent Pilate to Rome to explain his actions regarding this incident to Tiberius. However, by the time Pilate got to Rome, Tiberius had died. Pilate fell under misfortunes in the reign of Caligula (3741), was exiled to Gaul and eventually committed suicide there in Vienne. His body was thrown first into the Tiber , but the waters were so disturbed by evil spirits that the body was taken to Vienne and sunk in the Rhône : a monument at Vienne, called Pilate’s tomb, is still to be seen. As the waters of the Rhone likewise rejected Pilate’s corpse, it was again removed and sunk in the lake at Lausanne. In some Eastern Orthodox traditions, Pilate committed suicide out of remorse for having sentenced Jesus to death. , sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Judæa , Judaea or Iudaea to distinguish it from Judea proper, is a term used by historians to refer to the Roman province that incorporated the geographical regions of Judea , Samaria , and Idumea , and which extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Israel. It was named after Herod Archelaus’s Tetrarchy of Judea , of which it was an expansion, the latter name deriving from the Kingdom of Judah of the 6th century BCE. Rome’s involvement in the area dated from 63 BCE, following the end of the Third Mithridatic War , when Rome made Syria a province. In that year, after the defeat of Mithridates VI of Pontus , the proconsul Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) sacked Jerusalem and entered the Jerusalem Temple. Subsequently, during the 1st century BCE, the Herodian Kingdom was established as a Roman client kingdom and then in 6 CE parts became a province of the Roman Empire. Judea province was the scene of unrest at its founding during the Census of Quirinius and several wars were fought in its history, known as the Jewish-Roman wars. The Temple was destroyed in 70 as part of the Great Jewish Revolt resulting in the institution of the Fiscus Judaicus , and after Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132135 CE), the Roman Emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province to Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina , which certain scholars conclude was done in an attempt to remove the relationship of the Jewish people to the region. Relations with Hasmonean and Herodian dynasties. Pompey in the Temple of Jerusalem , by Jean Fouquet. The first intervention of Rome in the region dates from 63 BCE, following the end of the Third Mithridatic War , when Rome made a province of Syria. After the defeat of Mithridates VI of Pontus , Pompey (Pompey the Great) remained there to secure the area. The region at the time was not a peaceful place. The Queen of Judaea Salome Alexandra had recently died and her sons, Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II , divided against each other in a civil war. In 63 BCE, Aristobulus was besieged in Jerusalem by his brother’s armies. He sent an envoy to Marcus Aemilius Scaurus , Pompey’s representative in the area. Aristobulus offered a massive bribe to be rescued, which Pompey promptly accepted. Afterwards, Aristobulus accused Scaurus of extortion. Since Scaurus was Pompey’s brother in law and protégée, the general retaliated by putting Hyrcanus in charge of the kingdom as Ethnarch and High Priest , but he was denied the title of King. When Pompey was defeated by Julius Caesar , Hyrcanus was succeeded by his courtier Antipater the Idumaean , also known as Antipas, as the first Roman Procurator. In 5755 BCE, Aulus Gabinius , proconsul of Syria , split the former Hasmonean Kingdom of Israel into five districts of the Sanhedrin. Both Caesar and Antipater were killed in 44 BCE, and the Idumean Herod the Great , Antipater’s son, was designated ” King of the Jews ” by the Roman Senate in 40 BCE. He didn’t gain military control until 37 BCE. During his reign the last representatives of the Maccabees were eliminated, and the great port of Caesarea Maritima was built. He died in 4 BCE, and his kingdom was divided among his sons, who became tetrarchs (“rulers of a quarter part”). One of these quarters was Judea corresponding to the region of the ancient Kingdom of Judah. Herod’s son Herod Archelaus , ruled Judea so badly that he was dismissed in 6 CE by the Roman emperor Augustus , after an appeal from his own population. Another, Herod Antipas , ruled as tetrarch of Galilee and Perea from 4 BCE to 39 CE, being then dismissed by Caligula. Judea as Roman province. The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian (ruled 117138 CE), showing, in western Asia, the Roman province of Iudaea. 1 legion deployed in 125. In 6 CE Judea became part of a larger Roman province, called Iudaea , which was formed by combining Judea proper (biblical Judah) with Samaria and Idumea (biblical Edom). Even though Iudaea is simply derived from the Latin for Judea , many historians use it to distinguish the Roman province from the previous territory and history. Iudaea province did not include Galilee , Gaulanitis (the Golan), nor Peraea or the Decapolis. Its revenue was of little importance to the Roman treasury, but it controlled the land and coastal sea routes to the bread basket Egypt and was a border province against the Parthian Empire because of the Jewish connections to Babylonia (since the Babylonian exile). The capital was at Caesarea , not Jerusalem , which had been the capital for King David , King Hezekiah , King Josiah , the Maccabees and Herod the Great. Iudaea was not a Senatorial province , nor exactly an Imperial province , but instead was a “satellite of Syria” governed by a prefect who was a knight of the equestrian order (as was Roman Egypt), not a former consul or praetor of senatorial rank. Pontius Pilate was one of these prefects, from 26 to 36 CE. Caiaphas was one of the appointed High Priests of Herod’s Temple , being appointed by the Prefect Valerius Gratus in 18. Both were deposed by the Syrian Legate Lucius Vitellius in 36 CE. The’Crisis under Caligula’ (3741) has been proposed as the first open break between Rome and the Jews. Between 41 and 44 CE, Iudaea regained its nominal autonomy , when Herod Agrippa was made King of the Jews by the emperor Claudius , thus in a sense restoring the Herodian Dynasty, though there is no indication Iudaea ceased to be a Roman province simply because it no longer had a prefect. He elevated Iudaeas’s procurator whom he trusted to imperial governing status because the imperial legate of Syria was not sympathetic to the Judeans. Agrippa’s son Marcus Julius Agrippa was designated King of the Jews in 48. He was the seventh and last of the Herodians. From 70 CE until 135 CE, Iudaea’s rebelliousness required a governing Roman legate capable of commanding legions. Judaea was the stage of three major rebellions against Roman rule. 6670 CE – first rebellion, followed by the destruction of Herod’s Temple and the siege of Jerusalem (see Great Jewish Revolt , Josephus). 115117 CE – second rebellion, called Kitos War. 132135 CE – third rebellion, Bar Kokhba’s revolt. Following the suppression of Bar Kokhba’s revolt, the emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province to Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem became Aelia Capitolina which Hayim Hillel Ben-Sasson states was done to erase the historical ties of the Jewish people to the region. Under Diocletian (284-305) the region was divided into Palaestina Prima (Judea, Samaria, Idumea, Peraea and the coastal plain with Caesarea as capital), Palaestina Secunda (Galilee, Decapolis, Golan with Beth-shean as capital) and Palaestina Tertia (the Negev with Petra as capital). Ilya Zlobin, world-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. 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The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.