CARACALLA 198AD Pautalia Nude Farnese HERCULES Ancient Roman Coin i21944
Item: i21944 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Caracalla – Roman Emperor: 198-217 A. Bronze 18mm (4.68 grams) of Pautalia in Thrace AV. ANTN, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. OVC AVTAI, the “Farnese” Hercules standing facing, head right, resting hand on hip and placing left on club set on rock; lion skin beside club. The Farnese Hercules is an ancient sculpture, probably an enlarged copy made in the early third century AD and signed by a certain Glykon, from an original by Lysippos (or one of his circle) that would have been made in the fourth century BC. The copy was made for the Baths of Caracalla in Rome (dedicated in 216 AD), where it was recovered in 1546. The heroically-scaled Hercules is one of the most famous sculptures of Antiquity , and has fixed the image of the mythic hero in the European imagination. It quickly made its way into the collection of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese , grandson of Pope Paul III. Alessandro Farnese was well placed to form one of the greatest collections of classical sculpture that has been assembled since Antiquity. It stood for generations in its own room at Palazzo Farnese, Rome , where the hero was surrounded by frescoed depictions of his feats by Annibale Carracci and his studio, executed in the 1590s. The Farnese statue was moved to Naples in 1787 and is now displayed in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale. The type was well known in Antiquity: a Hellenistic or Roman bronze reduction, found at Foligno is conserved in the Musée du Louvre ; a small marble, probably Greek of the Roman period, is to be seen in the Museum of the Ancient Agora, Athens (illustration). The Farnese Hercules is a massive and muscular marble statue, following a lost original cast in bronze through a method called lost wax casting. It depicts a weary Hercules leaning on his club, which has his lion-skin draped over it. He is performing one of the last of The Twelve Labours , which is suggested by the apples of the Hesperides he holds behind his back. This prominently-sited statue was well liked by the Romans , and copies have been found in Roman palaces and gymnasiums: another, coarser, stood in the courtyard of Palazzo Farnese; one with the feigned (but probably ancient) inscription “Lykippos” has stood in the court of Palazzo Pitti , Florence, since the sixteenth century. Guglielmo della Porta, the head had been recovered separately, from a well in Trastevere , and was bought for Farnese through the agency of della Porta, whose legs made to complete the figure were so well regarded that when the original legs were recovered from ongoing excavations in the Baths of Caracalla, della Porta’s were retained, on Michelangelo’s advice, in part to demonstrate that modern sculptors could bear direct comparison with the ancients. The original legs, from the Borghese collection, were not reunited with the sculpture until 1787. Goethe , in his Italian Journey, recounts his differing impressions upon seeing the Hercules with each set of legs, marvelling at the clear superiority of the original ones. Hercules is caught in a rare moment of repose. Leaning on his knobby club which is draped with the pelt of the Nemean Lion , he holds the apples of the Hesperides in his right hand, but conceals them behind his back like a baseball pitcher with a knuckleball. Many engravings and woodcuts spread the fame of the Farnese’s Hercules. By 1562 the find was already included in the set of engravings for Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae (“Mirror of Rome’s Magnificence”) and connoisseurs, artists and tourists gaped at the original, which stood in the courtyard of the Palazzo Farnese, protected under the arcade. In 1590-91, during his trip to Rome, Hendrik Goltzius sketched the statue in the palazzo courtyard. Later (in 1591) Goltzius recorded the less-common rear view, in a bravura engraving (illustration, right), which emphasizes the already exaggerated muscular form with swelling and tapering lines that flow over the contours. The young Rubens made quick sketches of the Hercules’ planes and massing. Before photography, prints were the only way to put the image into many hands. The Farnese Hercules , engraved by Hendrick Goltzius , 1591. Two onlookers give scale. The sculpture was admired from the start, reservations about its exaggerated musculature only surfacing in the later eighteenth century. Wealthy collectors could afford one of the numerous bronze replicas in sizes for table-top display. A full-size marble copy that belonged to the Bourbons of Naples is at the National Museum, Naples. Copies of the Farnese Hercules appeared in 16th- and 18th-century gardens throughout Europe. During construction of the Alameda de Hercules (1574) in Seville , the oldest public garden preserved in Europe, on the cover were installed two columns from a Roman temple, an unquestionable sign of admiration for the Roman archaeological sites, elements of a building still preserved in the Marble Street. On them were placed two sculptures by Diego de Pesquera , in 1574, of the Farnese Hercules, as founder of the city, and of Julius Caesar , restorer of Híspalis. The first was a copy of the Farnese Hercules, near the monumental size of the famous Roman marble from the Baths of Caracalla. At Wilhelmshöhe , near Kassel , a colossal version 8.5 m high produced by Johann Jacob Anthoni, 17131717, has become the city’s mascot. André Le Nôtre placed a full-size gilded version against the skyline at the far end of the main vista at Vaux-le-Vicomte. That at Versailles is a copy by Jean Cornu , 16841686. In Scotland a rare copy in lead , of the first half of the 18th century, is sited incongruously in the central Highlands , overlooking the recently restored Hercules Garden in the grounds of Blair Castle. Velbazhd is a town in the far west of Bulgaria , the capital of Kyustendil Province , with a population of 58,059 (2005 census). Kyustendil is situated in the southern part of the Kyustendil Valley, 90 km southwest of Sofia. It was named after the medieval lord of the surrounding region, Constantine Draga. A Thracian settlement was founded at the place of the modern town in the 5th -4th century BC and the Romans developed it into an important stronghold, balneological resort and trade junction called Pautalia in the 1st century AD. The Hisarlaka fortress was built in the 4th century and the town was mentioned under the Slavic name of Velbazhd (, meaning “camel”). In a 1019 charter by the Byzantine Emperor Basil II. It became a major religious and administrative centre. Antoninus (Called’Caracalla’) Caesar: 195-198 A. With Septimius Severus 209-211 A. With Septimius Severus and Geta 211-217 A. Caracallus , born Lucius Septimius Bassianus and later called Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus , was the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Roman Emperor from 211 to 217. He was one of the most nefarious of Roman emperors. Caracalla’s reign was notable for. The Constitutio Antoniniana , granting Roman citizenship to freemen throughout the Roman Empire , according to Cassius Dio in order to increase taxation. Debasing the silver content in Roman coinage by 25 percent in order to pay the legions; and. The construction of a large thermae outside Rome, the remains of which, known as the Baths of Caracalla , can still be seen today. “Caracalla was the common enemy of all mankind, ” wrote Edward Gibbon. He spent his reign traveling from province to province so that each could experience his rapine and cruelty. Caracalla’s real name was Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. He got the nickname from his habit of wearing a cloak by the same name. Caracalla was the elder son of Septimius Severus and brother of Geta whom he positively hated. Hated so much, in fact, that he had him murdered a few years later. In the mayhem that followed, Caracalla’s men went on a killing spree of anyone suspected of being a Geta sympathizer. In the massacre, it’s estimated up to 20,000 people lost their lives. Caracalla would go on to rule for another five years but his bad karma caught up with him and he was assassinated in a plot perpetrated by Macrinus. As an emperor Caracalla possessed few redeeming qualities and among the worst of them would be his ruinous drain on the treasury. Because he knew everyone hated him he sought the protection of the army. He raised the pay of the solider to about four denarii per day, nearly quadrupling the salary of just a few years prior. And on top of their regular salary he heaped endless bonuses and other concessions meant to endear them. This not only intensified the hatred against him but also had the effect of corrupting the military who had become accustomed to this life of luxury and throwing the economy into lasting disarray. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “CARACALLA 198AD Pautalia Nude Farnese HERCULES Ancient Roman Coin i21944″ is in sale since Friday, July 22, 2011. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Provincial (100-400 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.