GORDIAN III & TRANQUILLINA 238AD Marcianopolis ATHENA Ancient Roman Coin i53870
Item: i53870 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Gordian III – Roman Emperor : 238-244 A. Gordian III & Tranquillina Bronze 27mm (11.87 grams) of. Marcianopolis in Moesia Inferior under consular legate Tertullianus Reference: AMNG I 1178 var. SNG Budapest 270 AVT K M ANT OPIANOC AV C B TPAHKV A, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian III on left facing right toward diademed draped bust of Tranquillina facing left on right. V TEPTV IANOV MAPKIANO O IT N, Athena standing left with spear and shield. , also referred to as Pallas Athena , is the goddess of war, civilization, wisdom, strength, strategy, crafts, justice and skill in. Athena’s Roman incarnation, embodies similar attributes. Athena is also a shrewd companion of. The Athenians built the. On the Acropolis of her namesake city, Athens, in her honour (Athena Parthenos). Athena’s cult as the patron of Athens seems to have existed from the earliest times and was so persistent that archaic myths about her were recast to adapt to cultural changes. In her role as a protector of the city. , many people throughout the Greek world worshiped Athena as Athena Polias (“Athena of the city”). And Athena bear etymologically connected names. Marcianopolis , or Marcianople was an ancient Roman city in Thracia. It was located at the site of modern day Devnya , Bulgaria. The city was so renamed by Emperor Trajan after his sister Ulpia Marciana , and was previously known as Parthenopolis. Romans repulsed a Gothic attack to this town in 267 (or 268), during the reign of Gallienus. Diocletian made it the capital of the Moesia Secunda province. Valens made it his winter quarters in 368 and succeeding years, Emperor Justinian I restored and fortified it. In 587, it was sacked by the king of the Avars but at once retaken by the Romans. The Roman army quartered there in 596 before crossing the Danube to assault the Avars. Between 893 and 972 it was one of the most important medieval cities in south-eastern Europe. Furia Sabinia Tranquillina or Sabinia Tranquillina ca 225 – aft. 244 was the Empress of Rome and wife of Emperor Gordian III. She was the young daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Timesitheus by an unknown wife. In 241 her father was appointed the head of the Praetorian Guard by the Roman Emperor Gordian III. In May that year, Tranquillina had married Gordian. She became a Roman Empress and received the honorific title of Augusta. Her marriage to Gordian was an admission by the young emperor of both political indispensability of Timesitheus and Tranquillinas suitability as an empress. In 243, Tranquillina’s father suddenly died and was replaced with Philip the Arab , as head of the Praetorian Guard. When Gordian was killed in February 244, Philip became the new emperor. Tranquillina survived her husband. She had no sons with him. Christian Settipani suggests that they had a daughter, (Furia) b. Ca 244, most likely posthumous, who married (Marcus Maecius Orfitus) b. Ca 245, son of Marcus Maecius Probus b. Ca 220, married to Pupiena Sextia Paulina Cethegilla b. Ca 225, paternal grandson of Marcus Pomponius Maecius Probus and maternal grandson of Marcus Pupienus Africanus (son of his protector Emperor Pupienus Maximus) and wife Cornelia Marullina, by whom she had issue. Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius. , known in English as Gordian III , was Roman Emperor from 238 to 244. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and his father was an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known on his early life before becoming Roman Emperor. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238. Following the murder of emperor Alexander Severus in Moguntiacum (modern Mainz), the capital of the Roman province Germania Inferior , Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed emperor, despite strong opposition of the Roman senate and the majority of the population. In response to what was considered in Rome as a rebellion, Gordian’s grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors in the Africa Province. Their revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus’ oppression. Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular men and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordian’s fate, so that the Senate decided to take the teenager Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus as his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions , namely the Parthica II who assassinated Maximinus. But their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and even an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor. Due to Gordian’s age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was dealt quickly. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina , daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian guard and father in law of the emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman empire. In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube , and the Sassanid kingdom across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia , the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a huge army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy’s territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the emperor’s security, were at risk. Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab , stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefect and the campaign proceeded. In the beginning of 244, the Persians counter-attacked. Persian sources claim that a battle was fought (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away, upstream of the Euphrates. Although ancient sources often described Philip, who succeeded Gordian as emperor, as having murdered Gordian at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah), the cause of Gordian’s death is unknown. Gordian’s youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of another usurper, granted him the everlasting esteem of the Romans. Despite the opposition of the new emperor, Gordian was deified by the Senate after his death, in order to appease the population and avoid riots. 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