DOMITIAN 81AD Roman Provincial City Rare Ancient Coin Macedonian Shield i24339
Item: i24339 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Domitian – Roman Caesar: 69-81 A. Bronze 22mm (7.76 grams) from the Province of Macedonia – Reference: Moushmov 5881 – AVT KAI , laureate head right. KOINON MAKEONN around a decorative Macedonian shield. Ancient depiction of a Macedonian infantryman (right). He is equipped with a hoplon (Argive) shield, so probably is a Hypaspist. He also wears a linothorax cuirass and a Thracian helmet. Concerning shield dimensions, there are different interpretations by scholars. The most common decorative motifs depicted on shields (from coins, ceramics, reliefs and other sculptural monuments) are variations on solar symbols. Some scholars have noted that Asclepiodotus defined the Macedonian shield as being different from other Greek shields, in dimensions and construction. According to descriptions in Antique sources, relief depictions, and from several archaeological findings, it is known that the diameter of the Macedonian shield varied from 62 cm up to 74 cm. Ancient shields of this type (which were not restricted to the Macedonians, they were also used by the Illyrians) have been recently excavated near the village of Bonche, Prilep in the Republic of Macedonia, not far from a vaulted stone tomb of’Macedonian’ type which is dated to the late 4th century B. The Macedonian phalangite shield was circular and displayed a slight convexity; its outer surface was faced by thin bronze sheet. The inner face of the shield was of wood or a multilayered leather construction, with a band for the forearm fixed to the centre of the shield. Plutarch noted that the phalangites (phalanx soldiers) carried a small shield on their shoulder. This probably meant that, as both hands were needed to hold the sarissa, the shield was worn suspended by a shoulder strap and steadied by the left forearm passing through the armband. The left hand would project beyond the rim of the shield to grip the sarissa. Recent reconstructions of the sarissa and phalangite shield showed that the shoulder strap supporting the shield effectively helps to transfer some of the weight of the sarissa from the left arm to the shoulders when the sarissa is held horizontally in its fighting position. The lefthand figure shows the armband and grip on the inside of a hoplon or Argive shield – painted Corinthian krater c. From pictorial sources, it is probable that the Hypaspists, elite members of the infantry , including the Agema of the King’s personal foot guard, employed a shield of larger dimensions, the traditional Greek hoplite shield called the hoplon or aspis , it is also referred to as the’Argive shield’. This shield, also circular, was larger than the phalangite shield, it had sheet-bronze facing over a wooden base; it was held with the left forearm passing through a central armband with a hand-grip set just inside the rim. This shield was more much convex than the phalangite shield and had a projecting rim, both features precluding its use with a double handed pike. The style of shield used by cavalry , if any, is less clear; the heavy cavalry of Alexander’s time did not employ shields. Light infantry javelineers would have used a version of the pelte (Ancient Greek:) shield, from whence their name, peltast, derived. This was a light shield made of leather-faced wicker. The shield was of Thracian origin and was originally shaped like a crescent, however, by the time of Macedonian greatness many depictions of peltai show them as being oval or round. Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 18 September 96), known as Domitian , was a Roman Emperor who reigned from 14 September 81 until his death. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty , the house which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 and 96 and encompassed the reigns of Domitian’s father Vespasian (6979), his older brother Titus (7981), and that of Domitian himself. Domitian’s youth and early career were largely spent in the shadow of his brother Titus, who gained military renown during the First Jewish-Roman War. This situation continued under the rule of Vespasian, who became emperor on 21 December 69 following the civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. While Titus effectually reigned as co-emperor with his father, Domitian was left with honours but no responsibilities. Vespasian died on 23 June 79 and was succeeded by Titus, whose own reign came to an unexpected end when he was struck by a fatal illness on 13 September 81. The following day Domitian was declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard , commencing a reign which lasted fifteen yearslonger than any man who had governed Rome since Tiberius. As emperor, Domitian strengthened the economy by revaluing the Roman coinage , expanded the border defenses of the Empire, and initiated a massive building programme to restore the damaged city of Rome. Significant wars were fought in Britain, where Gnaeus Julius Agricola expanded the Roman Empire as far as modern day Scotland , and in Dacia , where Domitian was unable to procure a decisive victory against king Decebalus. Domitian’s government nonetheless exhibited totalitarian characteristics. As emperor, he saw himself as the new Augustus , an enlightened despot destined to guide the Roman Empire into a new era of Flavian renaissance. Religious, military, and cultural propaganda fostered a cult of personality , and by nominating himself perpetual censor , he sought to control public and private morals. As a consequence, Domitian was popular with the people and the army but despised by members of the Roman Senate as a tyrant. Domitian’s reign came to an end on 18 September 96 when he was assassinated by court officials. The same day he was succeeded by his friend and advisor Nerva , who founded the long-lasting Nerva-Antonine dynasty. After his death, Domitian’s memory was condemned to oblivion by the Roman Senate, while senatorial authors such as Tacitus , Pliny the Younger and Suetonius published histories propagating the view of Domitian as a cruel and paranoid tyrant. Modern history has rejected these views, instead characterising Domitian as a ruthless but efficient autocrat, whose cultural, economic and political programme provided the foundation of the peaceful 2nd century. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “DOMITIAN 81AD Roman Provincial City Rare Ancient Coin Macedonian Shield i24339″ is in sale since Wednesday, December 7, 2011. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Provincial (100-400 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.