GORDIAN III 240AD Nysa-Scythopolis Samaria Beth Shean Ancient Roman Coin i44730
Item: i44730 Authentic Ancient Roman Coin of. Gordian III – Roman Emperor : 238-244 A. Bronze 23mm (11.07 grams) of Nysa-Scythopolis (Beth Shean) in Samaria Year 304 of the Pompeian Era, 240/241 A. Wohl Collection with original hand-written ticket Reference: Mesh. 59; Barkay 90; cf. C C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Dionysos walking right, holding thyrsos transversely in right hand, thrusting at small figure before him; on left, panther seated; palm branch in field, date, in field to right (year 304). Is the ancient Greek god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine , of ritual madness and ecstasy , was also the driving force behind Greek theater. The god who inspires joyful worship and ecstasy , festivals and celebration is a major figure of Greek mythology and the religion of ancient Greece. He is included as one of the twelve Olympians in some lists. Dionysus is typical of the god of the epiphany , “the god that comes”. He was also known as Bacchus , the name adopted by the Romans and the frenzy he induces, bakkheia. Hailed as an Asiatic foreigner, he was thought to have had strong ties to the East and to Ethiopia in the South. He was also known as the Liberator (Eleutherios), freeing one from one’s normal self, by madness, ecstasy or wine. The divine mission of Dionysus was to mingle the music of the aulos and to bring an end to care and worry. Scholars have discussed Dionysus’ relationship to the “cult of the souls” and his ability to preside over communication between the living and the dead. In Greek mythology, Dionysus is made out to be a son of Zeus and the mortal Semele. He is described as being womanly or “man-womanish”. The retinue of Dionysus was called the thiasus and was composed chiefly of maenads and satyrs. Dionysus is a god of mystery religious rites. In the Thracian mysteries, he wears the bassaris or fox -skin, symbolizing new life. His own rites, the Dionysian Mysteries practiced by maenads and others, were the most secret of all. Many scholars believe that Dionysus is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity and a more powerful god from Thrace or Phrygia such as Sabazios or Zalmoxis. Contradictions in Dionysus’ origin suggest to some that we are dealing not with the historical memory of a cult that is foreign, but with a god in whom foreignness is inherent. Karl Kerenyi traces him to Minoan Crete , where his Minoan name is unknown but his characteristic presence is recognizable. Clearly, Dionysus had been with the Greeks and their predecessors a long time, and yet always retained the feel of something alien. About this sound Beit She’an (help·info) Hebrew: Beth n; Arabic: , About this sound Beesn (help·info), Beisan or Bisan is a city in the North District of Israel which has played an important role historically due to its geographical location at the junction of the Jordan River Valley and Jezreel Valley. It has also played an important role in modern times, acting as the regional center for the numerous villages in the Beit She’an Valley Regional Council. The ancient city ruins are now protected as an Israeli national park, known as Bet She’an National Park. Beit She’an’s location has often been strategically significant, as it sits at the junction of the Jordan River Valley and the Jezreel Valley , essentially controlling access from the interior to the coast, as well as from Jerusalem to the Galilee. In 1933, archaeologist G. FitzGerald, under the auspices of the University of Pennsylvania Museum , carried out a “deep cut” on Tell el-Hisn (“castle hill”), the large mound of Beth She’an, in order to determine the earliest occupation of the site. His results suggest that settlement began in the Late Neolithic or Early Chalcolithic periods sixth to fifth millennia BCE. A large cemetery on the northern side of the mound was in use from the Bronze Age to Byzantine times. Canaanite graves dating from 2000 to 1600 BCE were discovered in 1926. BetShe’an – an ancient house of Egyptian governor. After the Egyptian conquest of Beit Shean by pharaoh Thutmose III in the 15th century BCE (recorded in an inscription at Karnak), the small town on the summit of the Tell became the center of the Egyptian administration of the region. The Egyptian newcomers changed the organization of the town and left a great deal of material culture behind. A large Canaanite temple (39 meters in length) excavated by the University of Pennsylvania Museum may date from about the same period as Thutmose III’s conquest, though the Hebrew University excavations suggest that it dates to a later period. Artifacts of potential cultic significance were found in the temple. Based on a stele found in the temple and inscribed with Egyptian hieroglyphs, the temple was dedicated to the god Mekal. One of the University Museum’s most important finds near the temple is the Lion and Dog stela (currently in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem), which depicts two combat scenes between these two creatures. The Hebrew University excavations determined that this temple was built on the site of an earlier one. During the three hundred years of Egyptian rule (18th Dynasty to the 20th Dynasty), the population of Beit Shean appears to have been primarily Egyptian administrative officials and military personnel. The town was completely rebuilt, following a new layout, during the 19th dynasty. The University Museum excavations uncovered two important stelae from the period of Seti I and a monument of Rameses II. Pottery was produced locally, but some was made to mimic Egyptian forms. Other Canaanite goods existed alongside Egyptian imports or locally made Egyptian-style objects. The 20th dynasty saw the construction of large administrative buildings in Beit She’an, including Building 1500, a small palace for the Egyptian governor. During the 20th dynasty, invasions of the ” Sea Peoples ” upset Egypt’s control over the Eastern Mediterranean. Though the exact circumstances are unclear, the entire site of Beit She’an was destroyed by fire around 1150 BCE. The Egyptians did not attempt to rebuild their administrative center and lost control of the region. Map of the Decapolis showing the location of Beit She’an, (here called by its Greek name, Scythopolis). An Iron Age I Canaanite city was constructed on the site of the Egyptian center shortly after its destruction. Around 1100 BC, Canaanite Beit She’an was conquered by the Philistines, who used it as a base of operations for further penetrations into Israel proper. During a subsequent battle against the Jewish King Saul at nearby Mount Gilboa in 1004 BC, the Philistines prevailed. 1 Samuel 31 states that the victorious Philistines hung the body of King Saul on the walls of Beit Shean. Portions of these walls were excavated on Tel Beit She’an recently. King David was able to capture Beit Shea’an in a series of brilliant military campaigns that expelled the Philistines from the area, pushing them back to their coastal strongholds of Ashkelon, Ekron, Gath, Gaza, and Ashdod. During the Iron Age II period, the town became a part of the larger Israelite kingdom under the rule of the Biblical kings David and Solomon 1 Kings 4:12 refers to Beit Shean as a part of the district of Solomon, though the historical accuracy of this list is debated. The Assyrian conquest of northern Israel under Tiglath-Pileser III (732 BCE) brought about the destruction of Beit She’an by fire. Minimal reoccupation occurred until the Hellenistic period. The Hellenistic and Roman Periods. Beit She’an theatre. The Hellenistic period saw the reoccupation of the site of Beit She’an under the new name Scythopolis (Ancient Greek :), possibly named after the Scythian mercenaries who settled there as veterans. Little is known about the Hellenistic city, but during the 3rd century BCE a large temple was constructed on the Tell. It is unknown which deity was worshipped there, but the temple continued to be used during Roman times. Graves dating from the Hellenistic period are simple singular rock-cut tombs. From 301 to 198 BCE the area was under the control of the Ptolemies , and Beit She’an is mentioned in 3rd2nd-century BC written sources describing the Syrian Wars between the Ptolemid and Seleucid dynasties. In 198 BCE the Seleucids conquered the region. The town played a role after the Hasmonean Maccabee Revolt: Josephus records that the Jewish High Priest Jonathan was killed there by Demetrius II Nicator. The city was destroyed by fire at the end of the 2nd century BCE. In 63 BC, Pompey made Judea a part of the Roman empire. Beit She’an was refounded and rebuilt by Gabinius. The town center shifted from the summit of the Tel to its slopes. Scythopolis prospered and became the leading city of the Decapolis , a loose confederation of ten cities that were centers of Greco-Roman culture, an event so significant that the town based its calendar on that year. The city flourished under the Pax Romana , as evidenced by high-level urban planning and extensive construction, including the best preserved Roman theatre of ancient Samaria , as well as a hippodrome , cardo , and other trademarks of the Roman influence. Mount Gilboa , 7 km (4 mi) away, provided dark basalt blocks as well as water via an aqueduct. The town is said to have sided with the Romans during the Jewish uprising of 66 CE. Excavations have focused less on the Roman period ruins, so less is known about this period. The University Museum excavation of the northern cemetery, however, did uncover significant finds. The Roman period tombs are of the loculus type: a rectangular rock-cut chamber with smaller chambers (loculi) cut into its side. Bodies were placed in the loculi or inside sarcophagi which were the placed in the loculi. A sarcophagus with an inscription identifying its occupant in Greek as “Antiochus, the son of Phallion” may have held the cousin of Herod the Great. One of the most interesting Roman grave finds was a bronze incense shovel with the handle in the form of an animal leg and hoof, now in the University of Pennsylvania Museum. Copious archaeological remains were found dating to the Byzantine period (330 CE 636 CE) and were excavated by the University of Pennsylvania Museum from 1921-23. A rotunda church was constructed on top of the Tell and the entire city was enclosed in a wall. Textual sources mention several other churches in the town. Beit She’an was primarily Christian, as attested to by the large number of churches, but evidence of Jewish habitation and a Samaritan synagogue indicate established communities of these minorities. The pagan temple in the city centre was destroyed, but the nymphaeum and Roman baths were restored. Many of the buildings of Scythopolis were damaged in the Galilee earthquake of 363, and in 409 it became the capital of the northern district, Palaestina Secunda. Dedicatory inscriptions indicate a preference for donations to religious buildings, and many colourful mosaics, such as that featuring the zodiac in the Monastery of Lady Mary, or the one picturing a menorah and shalom in the House of Leontius’ Jewish synagogue, were preserved. A Samaritan synagogue’s mosaic was unique in abstaining from human or animal images, instead utilising floral and geometrical motifs. Elaborate decorations were also found in the settlement’s many luxurious villas, and in the 6th century especially, the city reached its maximum size of 40,000 and spread beyond its period city walls. The Byzantine period portion of the northern cemetery was excavated in 1926. The tombs from this period consisted of small rock-cut halls with vaulted graves on three sides. A great variety of objects were found in the tombs, including terracotta figurines possibly depicting the Virgin and Child, many terracotta lamps, glass mirrors, bells, tools, knives, finger rings, iron keys, glass beads, bone hairpins, and many other items. In 634, Byzantine forces were defeated by the Muslim army of Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab and the city was renamed Baysan. The day of victory came to be known in Arabic as Yawm Baysan or the day of Baysan. The city was not damaged and the newly arrived Muslims lived together with its Christian population until the 8th century, but the city declined during this period. Structures were built in the streets themselves, narrowing them to mere alleyways, and makeshift shops were opened among the colonnades. The city reached a low point by the 8th century, witnessed by the removal of marble for producing lime , the blocking off of the main street, and the conversion of a main plaza into a cemetery. Some recently discovered counter-evidence may be offered to this picture of decline, however. In common with state-directed building work carried out in other towns and cities in the region during the 720s, Baysan’s commercial infrastructure was refurbished: its main colonnaded market street, once thought to date to the sixth century, is now known – on the basis of a mosaic inscription – to be a redesign dating from the time of the Umayyad caliph Hisham r. Abu Ubayd al-Andalusi noted that the wine produced there was delicious. On January 18, 749, Umayyad Baysan was completely devastated by the Golan earthquake of 749. A few residential neighborhoods grew up on the ruins, probably established by the survivors, but the city never recovered its magnificence. The city center moved to the southern hill where a Crusader fortress surrounded by a moat was constructed. Jerusalemite historian al-Muqaddasi visited Baysan in 985, during Abbasid rule and wrote that it was on the river, with plentiful palm trees, and water, though somewhat heavy brackish. He further noted that Baysan was notable for its indigo , rice, dates and grape syrup known as dibs. The town formed one of the districts (kurah) of Jund al-Urdunn during this period. Its principal mosque was situated in the center of its marketplace. In the Crusader period, the settlement was part of the Belvoir fiefdom. A small fort was built east of the defunct amphitheater. During the 1260 Battle of Ain Jalut , retreating Mongol forces passed in the vicinity but did not enter the town itself. Under Mamluk rule, Beit She’an was the principal town in the district of Damascus and a relay station for the postal service between Damascus and Cairo. It was also the capital of sugar cane processing for the region. Jisr al-Maqtu’a, a bridge consisting of a single arch spanning 25 feet and hung 50 feet above a stream, was built during that period. During this period the inhabitants of Beit She’an were mainly Muslim. There were however some Jews. For example, the 14th century topographer Ishtori Haparchi settled there and completed his work Kaftor Vaferech in 1322, the first Hebrew book on the geography of Palestine. During the 400 years of Ottoman rule, Baysan lost its regional importance. During the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid II when the Haifa -Damascus extension of the Hejaz railway was constructed, a limited revival took place. The Swiss – German traveler Johann Ludwig Burckhardt described Beisan in 1812 as a village with 70 to 80 houses, whose residents are in a miserable state. In the early 1900s, though still a small and obscure village, Beisan was known for its plentiful water supply, fertile soil, and its production of olives, grapes, figs, almonds, apricots, and apples. Under the Mandate, the city was the center of the District of Baysan. In 1934, Lawrence of Arabia noted that “Bisan is now a purely Arab village, ” where very fine views of the river can be had from the housetops. ” He further noted that “many nomad and Bedouin encampments, distinguished by their black tents, were scattered about the riverine plain, their flocks and herds grazing round them. Beisan was home to a mainly Mizrahi Jewish community of 95 until 1936, when the 19361939 Arab revolt saw Beisan serve as a center of Arab attacks on Jews in Palestine. In 1938, after learning of the murder of his close friend and Jewish leader Haim Sturmann, Orde Wingate led his men on an offensive in the Arab section of Baysan, the rebels suspected base. Pioneers of Kibbutz Ein Hanatziv settle in Bet She’an, 1946. According to population surveys conducted in British Mandate Palestine , Beisan consisted of 5,080 Muslim Arabs out of a population of 5,540 (92% of the population), with the remainder being listed as Christians. In 1945, the surrounding District of Baysan consisted of 16,660 Muslims (67%), 7,590 Jews (30%), and 680 Christians (3%); and Arabs owned 44% of land, Jews owned 34%, and 22% constituted public lands. The 1947 UN Partition Plan allocated Beisan and most of its district to the proposed Jewish state. Jewish militias and local Bedouins first clashed during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War in February and March 1948, part of Operation Gideon , which Walid Khalidi argues was part of a wider Plan Dalet. Joseph Weitz , a leading Yishuv figure, wrote in his diary on May 4, 1948 that, The Beit Shean Valley is the gate for our state in the Galilee… [I]ts clearing is the need of the hour. Beisan fell to the Jewish militias three days before the end of British Mandate Palestine. After Israel’s Declaration of Independence in May 1948, during intense shelling by Syrian border units, the Arab inhabitants, followed by the recapture of the valley by the Haganah, fled across the Jordan River. The property and buildings abandoned after the conflict were then held by the state of Israel. Most Arab Christians relocated to Nazareth. A ma’abarah (refugee camp) inhabited mainly by North African Jewish immigrants was erected in Beit She’an, and it later became a development town. From 1969, Beit She’an was a target for Katusha and mortar attacks from Jordan. In the 1974 Beit She’an attack , militants of the Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine , took over an apartment building and murdered a family of four. In 1999, Beit She’an was incorporated as a city. Geographically, it lies in the middle of the Beit She’an Valley Regional Council. Beit She’an was the hometown and political power base of David Levy , a prominent figure in Israeli politics. During the Second Intifada , in the 2002 Beit She’an attack , six Israelis were killed and over 30 were injured by two Palestinian militants, who opened fire and threw grenades at a polling station in the center of Bet She’an where party members were voting in the Likud primary. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the population of the municipality was 16,900 at the end of 2009. In 2005, the ethnic makeup of the city was 99.5% Jewish and other non-Arab (97.3% Jewish), with no significant Arab population. See Population groups in Israel. The population breakdown by gender was 8,200 males and 8,100 females. The age distribution was as follows. Source: Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Beit She’an park. According to CBS, as of 2000, in the city there were 4,980 salaried workers and 301 are self-employed. The mean monthly wage in 2000 for a salaried worker in the city is ILS 4,200, a real change of 3.3% over the course of 2000. Salaried males have a mean monthly wage of ILS 5,314 (a real change of 5.1%) versus ILS 2,998 for females (a real change of -1.0%). The mean income for the self-employed is 6,106. There are 470 people who receive unemployment benefits and 1,409 people who receive an income guarantee. Beit She’an is a center of cotton-growing, and many of residents are employed in the cotton fields of the surrounding kibbutzim. Other local industries include a textile mill and clothing factory. According to CBS, there are 16 schools and 3,809 students in the city. They are spread out as 10 elementary schools and 2,008 elementary school students, and 10 high schools and 1,801 high school students. 56.2% of 12th grade students were entitled to a matriculation certificate in 2001. Historically, Beit She’an was a railway station in the Jezreel Valley railway , an extension of the Hejaz railway. Currently, no railway is in use in the city, although a planned expansion by Israel Railways seeks to change this by Q1 2011. The main means of transport in Beit She’an is the bus, and the city is served by the Egged (long-distance, bus 961) and Kavim (local) bus companies. The University of Pennsylvania carried out excavations of ancient Beit She’an in 19211933. Relics from the Egyptian period were discovered, most of them in the Rockefeller Museum in Jerusalem. Some are in the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia. Excavations at the site were resumed by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1983 and then again from 1989 to 1996 under the direction of A. The excavations have revealed no less than 18 successive ancient towns. Ancient Beit She’an is one of the most impressive Roman and Byzantine sites in Israel, and it attracts approximately 300,000 tourists annually. Beit She’an is located above the Dead Sea Transform faultline , and as such, is one of the cities in Israel most at risk to earthquakes (along with Safed , Tiberias , Kiryat Shmona , and Eilat). Historically, the city was destroyed in the Golan earthquake of 749. The local football club, Hapoel Beit She’an spent several seasons in the top division in the 1990s, but folded in 2006 after several relegations. Maccabi Beit She’an currently play in Liga Bet. The town lies within an area known as the Valley of Springs Regional Council where several springs provide leisure opportunities. Twin towns Sister cities. Beit She’an is twinned with. List of Arab towns and villages depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius. , known in English as Gordian III , was Roman Emperor from 238 to 244. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and his father was an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known on his early life before becoming Roman Emperor. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238. Following the murder of emperor Alexander Severus in Moguntiacum (modern Mainz), the capital of the Roman province Germania Inferior , Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed emperor, despite strong opposition of the Roman senate and the majority of the population. In response to what was considered in Rome as a rebellion, Gordian’s grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors in the Africa Province. Their revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus’ oppression. Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular men and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordian’s fate, so that the Senate decided to take the teenager Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus as his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions , namely the Parthica II who assassinated Maximinus. But their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and even an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor. Due to Gordian’s age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was dealt quickly. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina , daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian guard and father in law of the emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman empire. In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube , and the Sassanid kingdom across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia , the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a huge army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy’s territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the emperor’s security, were at risk. Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab , stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefect and the campaign proceeded. In the beginning of 244, the Persians counter-attacked. Persian sources claim that a battle was fought (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away, upstream of the Euphrates. Although ancient sources often described Philip, who succeeded Gordian as emperor, as having murdered Gordian at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah), the cause of Gordian’s death is unknown. Gordian’s youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of another usurper, granted him the everlasting esteem of the Romans. Despite the opposition of the new emperor, Gordian was deified by the Senate after his death, in order to appease the population and avoid riots. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “GORDIAN III 240AD Nysa-Scythopolis Samaria Beth Shean Ancient Roman Coin i44730″ is in sale since Sunday, November 23, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Provincial (100-400 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.