GORDIAN III 238AD ATHENA rape Serpent ERICHTHONIUS Ancient Roman Coin i17222

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GORDIAN III 238AD ATHENA rape Serpent ERICHTHONIUS Ancient Roman Coin i17222
GORDIAN III 238AD ATHENA rape Serpent ERICHTHONIUS Ancient Roman Coin i17222
GORDIAN III 238AD ATHENA rape Serpent ERICHTHONIUS Ancient Roman Coin i17222

GORDIAN III 238AD ATHENA rape Serpent ERICHTHONIUS Ancient Roman Coin i17222
Item: i17222 Authentic Ancient Roman Coin of. Gordian III – Roman Emperor: 238-244 A. Bronze 22mm (6.64 grams) Deultum in Trace Thrace mint, 238-244 A. IMP C M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, radiate, draped bust right. COL FL PAC DEVLT, Athena standing left with spear and shield, and her serpent Erichthonius entwined around tree in field to left. Hephaestus attempted to rape Athena, but she eluded him. His semen fell on the ground, and Erichthonius was born from the Earth, Gaia. Athena then raised the baby as a foster mother. Athena put the infant Erichthonius in a small box (cista) which she entrusted to the care of three sisters, Herse , Pandrosus , and Aglaulus of Athens. One or two sisters opened the cista to reveal Erichthonius, in the form (or embrace) of a serpent. The serpent, or insanity induced by the sight, drove Herse and Aglaulus to throw themselves off the Acropolis. Jane Harrison (Prolegomena) finds this to be a simple cautionary tale directed at young girls carrying the cista in the Thesmophoria rituals, to discourage them from opening it outside the proper context. With this mythic origin, Erichthonius became the founder- king of Athens , where many beneficial changes to Athenian culture were ascribed to him. During this time, Athena frequently protected him. Hephaestus was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan. He is the son of Zeus and Hera , the King and Queen of the Gods – or else, according to some accounts, of Hera alone. He was the god of technology , blacksmiths , craftsmen , artisans , sculptors , metals , metallurgy , fire and volcanoes. Like other mythic smiths but unlike most other gods, Hephaestus was lame, which gave him a grotesque appearance in Greek eyes. He served as the blacksmith of the gods, and he was worshipped in the manufacturing and industrial centers of Greece, particularly in Athens. The center of his cult was in Lemnos. Hephaestus’s symbols are a smith’s hammer , an anvil and a pair of tongs , although sometimes he is portrayed as not known to all. Hephaestus is given many epithets , some of which include. Åmphigúeis the lame one. Polúmetis shrewd, crafty or of many devices. Aetnaeus , owing to his workshop supposedly being located below Mount Aetna. Erichthonius, Cacus, and Caeculus. Hephaestus (Hêphaistos), the god of fire, was, according to the Homeric account, the son of Zeus and Hera. Later traditions state that he had no father, and that Hera gave birth to him independent of Zeus, as she was jealous of Zeus having given birth to Athena independent of her. This, however, is opposed to the common story, that Hephaestus split the head of Zeus, and thus assisted him in giving birth to Athena, for Hephaestus is there represented as older than Athena. A further development of the later tradition is, that Hephaestus sprang from the thigh of Hera, and, being for a long time kept in ignorance of his parentage, he at length had recourse to a stratagem, for the purpose of finding it out. He constructed a chair, to which those who sat upon it were fastened, and having thus entrapped Hera, he refused allowing her to rise until she had told him who his parents were. For other accounts respecting his origin, see Cicero de Nat. And Eustathius ad Hom. Hephaestus is the god of fire, especially in so far as it manifests itself as a power of physical nature in volcanic districts, and in so far as it is the indispensable means in arts and manufactures, whence fire is called the breath of Hephaestus, and the name of the god is used both by Greek and Roman poets as synonymous with fire. As a flame arises out of a little spark, so the god of fire was delicate and weakly from his birth, for which reason he was so much disliked by his mother, that she wished to get rid of him, and dropped him from Olympus. But the marine divinities, Thetis and Eurynome, received him, and he dwelt with them for nine years in a grotto, surrounded by Oceanus, making for them a variety of ornaments. It was, according to some accounts, during this period that he made the golden chair by which he punished his mother for her want of affection, and from which he would not release her, till he was prevailed upon by Dionysus. Although Hephaestus afterwards remembered the cruelty of his mother, yet he was always kind and obedient towards her, nay once, while she was quarrelling with Zeus, he took her part, and thereby offended his father so much, that he seized him by the leg, and hulled him down from Olympus. Hephaestus was a whole day falling, but in the evening he came down in the island of Lemnos, where he was kindly received by the Sintians. § 5, who, however, confounds the two occasions on which Hephaestus was thrown from Olympus. Later writers describe his lameness as the consequence of his second fall, while Homer makes him lame and weak from his birth. On that occasion he offered a cup of nectar to his mother and the other gods, who burst out into immoderate laughter on seeing him busily hobbling through Olympus from one god to another, for he was ugly and slow, and, owing to the weakness of his legs, he was held up, when he walked, by artificial supports, skilfully made of gold. His neck and chest, however, were strong and muscular. It was there that he made all his beautiful and marvellous works, utensils, and arms, both for gods and men. The ancient poets and mythographers abound in passages describing works of exquisite workmanship which had been manufactured by Hephaestus. In later accounts, the Cyclopes, Brontes, Steropes, Pyracmon, and others, are his workmen and servants, and his workshop is no longer represented as in Olympus, but in the interior of some volcanic isle. The wife of Hephaestus also lived in his palace: in the Iliad she is called a Charis, in the Odyssey Aphrodite Il. 270, and in Hesiod’s Theogony (945) she is named Aglaia. The youngest of the Charites. The story of Aphrodite’s faithlessness to her husband, and of the manner in which he surprised her, is exquisitely described in Od. The Homeric poems do not mention any descendants of Hephaestus, but in later writers the number of his children is considerable. In the Trojan war he was on the side of the Greeks, but he was also worshipped by the Trojans, and on one occasion he saved a Trojan from being killed by Diomedes. His favourite place on earth was the island of Lemnos, where he liked to dwell among the Sintians Od. 82; but other volcanic islands also, such as Lipara, Hiera, Imbros. And Sicily, are called his abodes or workshops. Hephaestus is among the male what Athena is among the female deities, for, like her, he give skill to mortal artists, and, conjointly with her, he was believed to have taught men the arts which embellish and adorn life. Nevertheless, conceived as far inferior to the sublime character of Athena. At Athens they had temples and festivals in common. See Dict of Ant. Both also were believed to have great healing powers, and Lemnian earth (terra Lemnia) from the spot on which Hephaestus had fallen was believed to cure madness, the bites of snakes, and haemorrhage, and the priests of the god knew how to cure wounds inflicted by snakes. The epithets and surnames by which Hephaestus is designated by the poets generally allude to his skill in the plastic arts or to his figure and his lameness. He was represented in the temple of Athena Chalcioecus at Sparta, in the act of delivering his mother Paus. § 3; on the chest of Cypselus, giving to Thetis the armour for Achilles v. § 2; and at Athens there was the famous statue of Hephaestus by Alcamenes, in which his lameness was slightly indicated. The Greeks frequently placed small dwarf-like statues of the god near the hearth, and these dwarfish figures seem to have been the most ancient. During the best period of Grecian art, he was represented as a vigorous man with a beard, and is characterised by his hammer or some other instrument, his oval cap, and the chiton, which leaves the right shoulder and arm uncovered. The Romans, when speaking of the Greek Hephaestus, call him Vulcanus, although Vulcanus was an original Italian divinity. The craft of Hephaestus. Hephaestus crafted much of the magnificent equipment of the gods, and almost any finely-wrought metalwork imbued with powers that appears in Greek myth is said to have been forged by Hephaestus: Hermes’ winged helmet and sandals , the Aegis breastplate , Aphrodite’s famed girdle , Agamemnon’s staff of office. Achilles’ armor, Heracles’ bronze clappers , Helios’ chariot as well as his own due to his lameness, the shoulder of Pelops , Eros’ bow and arrows. Hephaestus worked with the help of the chthonic Cyclopes , his assistants in the forge. He also built automatons of metal to work for him. This included tripods that walked to and from Mount Olympus. He gave to blinded Orion his apprentice Cedalion as a guide. In one version of the myth, Prometheus stole the fire that he gave to man from Hephaestus’s forge. Hephaestus also created the gift that the gods gave to man, the woman Pandora and her pithos. Being a skilled blacksmith, Hephaestus created all the thrones in the Palace of Olympus. In the mainstream tradition, clearly attested in Homer’s Odyssey and perhaps also in the Iliad (and supported by Attic vase paintings), Hephaestus was born of the union of Zeus and Hera. In another tradition, attested by Hesiod , Hera bore Hephaestus alone. According to one version, Hera, threw Hephaestus down from the heavens because he was “shrivelled of foot”. He fell into the ocean and was brought up by Thetis (mother of Achilles) and the Oceanid Eurynome. In another account, Hephaestus attempting to rescue his mother from Zeus, was flung down by Zeus. He fell for an entire day and landed on the island of Lemnos , where he was cared for and taught to be a master craftsman by the Sintians , an ancient tribe native to that island. In an archaic story. Hephaestus gained revenge against Hera for rejecting him by making her a magical golden throne, which, when she sat on it, did not allow her to leave it. The other gods begged Hephaestus to return to Olympus to let her go, but he refused, saying “I have no mother”. The western face of the Doric temple of Hephaestus , Agora of Athens. At last Dionysus , sent to fetch him, shared his wine, intoxicating the smith, and took him back to Olympus on the back of a mule accompanied by revelers, a scene that sometimes appears on painted pottery of Attica and in Corinth. In the painted scenes the padded dancers and phallic figures of the Dionysan throng leading the mule show that the procession was a part of the dithyrambic celebrations that were the forerunners, in Athens, of the satyr plays of the fifth century. The theme of the return of Hephaestus , popular among the Attic vase-painters whose wares were favored among the Etruscans , may have carried this theme to Etruria. As vase-painters portrayed the procession, Hephaestus was mounted on a mule or a horse, accompanied by Dionysus, who held the bridle and carried Hephaestus’ tools, which include a double-headed axe. The traveller Pausanias reported seeing a painting in the temple of Dionysus in Athens, which had been built in the 5th century but may have been decorated at any time before the 2nd century CE, when Pausanias saw it. There are paintings here Dionysus bringing Hephaestus up to heaven. One of the Greek legends is that Hephaestus, when he was born, was thrown down by Hera. In revenge he sent as a gift a golden chair with invisible fetters. When Hera sat down she was held fast, and Hephaestus refused to listen to any other of the gods save Dionysus in him he reposed the fullest trust and after making him drunk Dionysus brought him to heaven. According to most versions, Hephaestus’s consort is Aphrodite , who cheats on him with a number of gods and mortals, including the god Ares. However, in Homer’s Iliad , the consort of Hephaestus is a lesser Aphrodite, Charis “the grace” or Aglaia “the glorious”, the youngest of the Graces , as Hesiod calls her. There is a Temple of Hephaestus in Athens , the Hephaesteum (miscalled the “Theseum”), located near the agora , or marketplace. An Athenian founding myth tells that the city’s patron goddess, Athena , refused a union with Hephaestus because of his unsightly appearance and crippled nature, and that when he became angry and forceful with her, she disappeared from the bed. His ejaculate fell on the earth, impregnating Gaia , who subsequently gave birth to Erichthonius of Athens. Then the surrogate mother gave the child to Athena to foster, guarded by a serpent. On the island of Lemnos, his consort was the sea nymph Cabeiro , by whom he was the father of two metalworking gods named the Cabeiri. In Sicily, his consort was the nymph Aetna , and his sons two gods of Sicilian geysers called Palici. With Thalia , Hephaestus was sometimes considered the father of the Palici. Hephaestus fathered several children with mortals and immortals alike. One of those children was the robber Periphetes. This is the full list of his consorts and children according to the various accounts. In addition, the Romans claim their equivalent god, Vulcan, to have produced the following children. Hephaestus, being the most unfaltering of the gods, was given Aphrodites hand in marriage by Zeus in order to prevent conflict over her between the other gods. Hephaestus and Aphrodite had an arranged marriage and Aphrodite, disliking the idea of being married to unsightly Hephaestus, began an affair with Ares, the god of war. Eventually, Hephaestus found out about Aphrodites promiscuity from Helios , the all-seeing Sun, and planned a trap for them during one of their trysts. While Aphrodite and Ares lay together in bed, Hephaestus ensnared them in an unbreakable chain-link net so small as to be invisible and dragged them to Mount Olympus to shame them in front of the other gods for retribution. However, the gods laughed at the sight of these naked lovers and Poseidon persuaded Hephaestus to free them in return for a guarantee that Ares would pay the adulterer’s fine. Hephaestus states in the Odyssey that he would return Aphrodite to her father and demand back his bride price: this is the one episode that links them. The Thebans told that the union of Ares and Aphrodite produced Harmonia , as lovely as a second Aphrodite. But of the union of Hephaestus with Aphrodite, there was no issue, unless Virgil was serious when he said that Eros was their child. Later authors might explain this statement when they say the love-god was sired by Ares but passed off to Hephaestus as his own son. Hephaestus was somehow connected with the archaic, pre-Greek Phrygian and Thracian mystery cult of the Kabeiroi , who were also called the Hephaistoi , “the Hephaestus-men, ” in Lemnos. One of the three Lemnian tribes also called themselves Hephaestion and claimed direct descent from the god. Hephaestus was identified by Greek colonists in southern Italy with the volcano gods Adranus (of Mount Etna) and Vulcanus of the Lipari islands. His forge was moved there by the poets. The first-century sage Apollonius of Tyana is said to have observed, “there are many other mountains all over the earth that are on fire, and yet we should never be done with it if we assigned to them giants and gods like Hephaestus”. Hephaestus was reported in myth as chols , “lame”, and pedanos , “halting”. He was depicted with crippled feet, and misshapen, either from birth or as a result of his fall from Olympus. In vase-paintings, Hephaestus is usually shown lame and bent over his anvil, hard at work on a metal creation, his feet sometimes back-to-front: Hephaistos amphigyeis. He walked with the aid of a stick. The Argonaut Palaimonius, “son of Hephaestus” i. A bronze-smith was also lame. Other “sons of Hephaestus” were the Cabeiri on the island of Samothrace ; they were identified with the crab (karkinos) by the lexicographer Hesychius , and the adjective karkinopous (“crab-footed”) signified “lame”, according to Detienne and Vernant. The Cabeiri were seen as lame too. In some myths, Hephaestus built himself a “wheeled chair” or chariot with which to move around, thus helping him overcome his lameness while showing the other gods his skill. In Homer’s Iliad it is said that Hephaestus built some bronze human machines to help him get around. Hephaestuss ugly appearance and lameness is taken by some to represent arsenicosis , an effect of low levels of arsenic exposure that would result in lameness and skin cancers. In place of less easily available tin , arsenic was added to copper in the Bronze Age to harden it; like the hatters , crazed by their exposure to mercury , who inspired Lewis Carroll’s famous character of the Mad Hatter , most smiths of the Bronze Age would have suffered from chronic poisoning as a result of their livelihood. Consequently, the mythic image of the lame smith is widespread. Helmeted Athena with the cista and Erichthonius in his serpent form. Roman, first century (Louvre Museum). In Greek religion and mythology , Athena or Athene , also referred to as Pallas Athena/Athene , is the goddess of wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, law and justice, just warfare, mathematics, strength, strategy, the arts, crafts, and skill. Minerva is the Roman goddess identified with Athena. Athena is also a shrewd companion of heroes and is the goddess of heroic endeavour. She is the virgin patroness of Athens. The Athenians founded the Parthenon on the Acropolis of her namesake city, Athens (Athena Parthenos), in her honour. Athena’s veneration as the patron of Athens seems to have existed from the earliest times, and was so persistent that archaic myths about her were recast to adapt to cultural changes. In her role as a protector of the city (polis), many people throughout the Greek world worshiped Athena as Athena Polias (“Athena of the city”). The city of Athens and the goddess Athena essentially bear the same name, “Athenai” meaning “[many] Athenas”. Athenian tetradrachm representing the goddess Athena. Athena as the goddess of philosophy became an aspect of the cult in Classical Greece during the late 5th century B. She is the patroness of various crafts, especially of weaving , as Athena Ergane , and was honored as such at festivals such as Chalceia. The metalwork of weapons also fell under her patronage. She led battles (Athena Promachos or the warrior maiden Athena Parthenos) as the disciplined, strategic side of war, in contrast to her brother Ares , the patron of violence, bloodlust and slaughter”the raw force of war”. Athena’s wisdom includes the cunning intelligence (metis) of such figures as Odysseus. Not only was this version of Athena the opposite of Ares in combat, it was also the polar opposite of the serene earth goddess version of the deity, Athena Polias. Athena appears in Greek mythology as the patron and helper of many heroes, including Odysseus , Jason , and Heracles. In Classical Greek myths, she never consorts with a lover, nor does she ever marry, earning the title Athena Parthenos. A remnant of archaic myth depicts her as the adoptive mother of Erechtheus / Erichthonius through the foiled rape by Hephaestus. Other variants relate that Erichthonius, the serpent that accompanied Athena, was born to Gaia : when the rape failed, the semen landed on Gaia and impregnated her. After Erechthonius was born, Gaia gave him to Athena. Though Athena is a goddess of war strategy, she disliked fighting without purpose and preferred to use wisdom to settle predicaments. The goddess only encouraged fighting for a reasonable cause or to resolve conflict. As patron of Athens she fought in the Trojan war on the side of the Achaeans. Athena competed with Poseidon to be the patron deity of Athens, which was yet unnamed, in a version of one founding myth. They agreed that each would give the Athenians one gift and that the Athenians would choose the gift they preferred. Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring sprang up; this gave them a means of trade and waterAthens at its height was a significant sea power, defeating the Persian fleet at the Battle of Salamis but the water was salty and not very good for drinking. Athena, however, offered them the first domesticated olive tree. The Athenians (or their king, Cecrops) accepted the olive tree and with it the patronage of Athena, for the olive tree brought wood, oil, and food. Robert Graves was of the opinion that “Poseidon’s attempts to take possession of certain cities are political myths” which reflect the conflict between matriarchal and patriarchal religions. Other sites of cult. Athena also was the patron goddess of several other Greek cities, notably Sparta, where the archaic cult of Athena Alea had its sanctuaries in the surrounding villages of Mantineia and, notably, Tegea. In Sparta itself, the temple of Athena Khalkíoikos (Athena “of the Brazen House”, often latinized as Chalcioecus) was the grandest and located on the Spartan acropolis; presumably it had a roof of bronze. The forecourt of the Brazen House was the place where the most solemn religious functions in Sparta took place. Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greece, containing the Temple of Athena Alea. The temenos was founded by Aleus , Pausanias was informed. Votive bronzes at the site from the Geometric and Archaic periods take the forms of horses and deer; there are sealstone and fibulae. In the Archaic period the nine villages that underlie Tegea banded together in a synoecism to form one city. Tegea was listed in Homer’s Catalogue of Ships as one of the cities that contributed ships and men for the Achaean assault on Troy. Aphrodite is being surveyed by Paris, while Athena (the leftmost figure) and Hera stand nearby. El Juicio de Paris by Enrique Simonet , ca. All the gods and goddesses as well as various mortals were invited to the marriage of Peleus and Thetis (the eventual parents of Achilles). Only Eris , goddess of discord, was not invited. She was annoyed at this, so she arrived with a golden apple inscribed with the word (kallisti, “for the fairest”), which she threw among the goddesses. Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena all claimed to be the fairest, and thus the rightful owner of the apple. The goddesses chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Paris, a Trojan prince. After bathing in the spring of Mount Ida (where Troy was situated), the goddesses appeared before Paris. The goddesses undressed and presented themselves to Paris naked, either at his request or for the sake of winning. Paris is awarding the apple to Aphrodite, while Athena makes a face. Urteil des Paris by Anton Raphael Mengs , ca. Still, Paris could not decide, as all three were ideally beautiful, so they resorted to bribes. Hera tried to bribe Paris with control over all Asia and Europe , while Athena offered wisdom, fame and glory in battle, but Aphrodite came forth and whispered to Paris that if he were to choose her as the fairest he would have the most beautiful mortal woman in the world as a wife, and he accordingly chose her. This woman was Helen , who was, unfortunately for Paris, already married to King Menelaus of Sparta. The other two goddesses were enraged by this and through Helen’s abduction by Paris they brought about the Trojan War. The Parthenon , Temple of Athena Parthenos. Athena had an “androgynous compromise” that allowed her traits and what she stood for to be attributed to male and female rulers alike over the course of history (such as Marie de’ Medici, Anne of Austria, Christina of Sweden, and Catherine the Great). Bachofen advocated that Athena was originally a maternal figure stable in her security and poise but was caught up and perverted by a patriarchal society; this was especially the case in Athens. The goddess adapted but could very easily be seen as a god. He viewed it as “motherless paternity in the place of fatherless maternity” where once altered, Athena’s character was to be crystallized as that of a patriarch. Whereas Bachofen saw the switch to paternity on Athena’s behalf as an increase of power, Freud on the contrary perceived Athena as an “original mother goddess divested of her power”. In this interpretation, Athena was demoted to be only Zeus’s daughter, never allowed the expression of motherhood. Still more different from Bachofen’s perspective is the lack of role permanency in Freud’s view: Freud held that time and differing cultures would mold Athena to stand for what was necessary to them. Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius. , known in English as Gordian III , was Roman Emperor from 238 to 244. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and his father was an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known on his early life before becoming Roman Emperor. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238. Following the murder of emperor Alexander Severus in Moguntiacum (modern Mainz), the capital of the Roman province Germania Inferior , Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed emperor, despite strong opposition of the Roman senate and the majority of the population. In response to what was considered in Rome as a rebellion, Gordian’s grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors in the Africa Province. Their revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus’ oppression. Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular men and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordian’s fate, so that the Senate decided to take the teenager Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus as his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions , namely the Parthica II who assassinated Maximinus. But their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and even an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor. Due to Gordian’s age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was dealt quickly. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina , daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian guard and father in law of the emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman empire. In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube , and the Sassanid kingdom across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia , the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a huge army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy’s territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the emperor’s security, were at risk. Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab , stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefect and the campaign proceeded. In the beginning of 244, the Persians counter-attacked. Persian sources claim that a battle was fought (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away, upstream of the Euphrates. Although ancient sources often described Philip, who succeeded Gordian as emperor, as having murdered Gordian at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah), the cause of Gordian’s death is unknown. Gordian’s youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of another usurper, granted him the everlasting esteem of the Romans. Despite the opposition of the new emperor, Gordian was deified by the Senate after his death, in order to appease the population and avoid riots. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “GORDIAN III 238AD ATHENA rape Serpent ERICHTHONIUS Ancient Roman Coin i17222″ is in sale since Wednesday, July 25, 2012. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Provincial (100-400 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
GORDIAN III 238AD ATHENA rape Serpent ERICHTHONIUS Ancient Roman Coin i17222