Constantine I the Great Ancient Roman Coin Victory Over Licinius I i31356
Item: i31356 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Constantine I’The Great’- Roman Emperor: 307-337 A. Victory Over Licinius Commemorative Bronze AE3 20mm (2.51 grams) Constantinople mint: 327 A. Reference: RIC VII 30 CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, diademed head right. CONSTANTINIANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus holding palm in each hand, looking right; before her, trophy at foot of which kneeling captive turning head, spurned by Victory; B/CONS in exergue. Numismatic Note: Rare victory over Licinius issue. Often thought to commemorate the Constantinian Fort of Daphne, Melville Jones suggests that the legend comes from the Greek word for laurel (daphne) and therefore may be a symbol of victory over Licinius I at Chrysopolis. The same obverse type gazing upward, was also used for gold and silver coins and some other bronze coins. The ancient author Eusebius mentioned these types of coins. The Battle of Chrysopolis was fought on 18 September 324 at Chrysopolis (Üsküdar), near Chalcedon (Kadköy), between the two Roman emperors Constantine I and Licinius. The battle was the final encounter between the two emperors. After his navy’s defeat in the Battle of the Hellespont , Licinius withdrew his forces from the city of Byzantium across the Bosporus to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Constantine followed, and won the subsequent battle. This left Constantine as the sole emperor, ending the period of the Tetrarchy. In the Battle of the Hellespont Licinius’ navy had suffered a catastrophic defeat. His admiral, Abantus, had been outfought by Constantine’s son the caesar Crispus , despite the latter’s distinctly smaller fleet. Following this naval victory, Constantine crossed over to Asia Minor. He used a flotilla of light transports in order to avoid the enemy army, which, under the command of Licinius’ newly appointed co-emperor Martinian , was guarding the coast at Lampsacus. Following the destruction of his naval forces Licinius evacuated his garrison from Byzantium which joined his main army in Chalcedon on the Asiatic shore of the Bosporus. From there he also summoned Martinian’s forces and a band of Visigothic auxiliaries, under their leader Aliquaca (or Alica), to reinforce his principal army which had been depleted by its earlier defeat at the Battle of Adrianople. Constantine’s army landed on the Asiatic shore of the Bosphoros at a place called the Sacred Promontory and marched southward towards Chalcedon. Licinius moved his army a few miles north towards Chysopolis. Constantine’s army reached the environs of Chrysopolis before the forces of Licinius. Following a retreat to his tent to seek divine guidance, Constantine decided to take the initiative. The religious aspect of the conflict was reflected in Licinius drawing up his battle lines with images of the pagan gods of Rome prominently displayed, whilst Constantine’s army fought under his talismanic Christian standard, the labarum. Licinius had developed a superstitious dread of the labarum and forbade his troops from attacking it, or even looking directly at it. Constantine seemingly eschewed any subtlety of manoeuvre, he launched a single massive frontal assault on Licinius’ troops and routed them. He won a decisive victory in what was a very large-scale battle. According to the historian Zosimus , There was great slaughter at Chrysopolis. Licinius was reported to have lost 25,000 to 30,000 dead, with thousands more breaking and running in flight. Licinius managed to escape and gathered around 30,000 of his surviving troops at the city of Nicomedia. Licinius and his son, depicted with haloes, on a gold coin. Licinius, recognising that his surviving forces in Nicomedia could not stand against Constantine’s victorious army, was persuaded to throw himself on the mercy of his enemy. Constantia, Constantine’s half-sister and Licinius’ wife, acted as intermediary. Initially, yielding to the pleas of his sister, Constantine spared the life of his brother-in-law, but some months later he ordered his execution, thereby breaking his solemn oath. A year later, Constantine’s nephew the younger Licinius also fell victim to the emperor’s anger or suspicions. In defeating his last foe, Licinius, Constantine became the sole emperor of the Roman empire ; the first since the elevation of Maximian to the status of augustus by Diocletian in April 286. After his conquest of the eastern portion of the Roman Empire Constantine made the momentous decision to give the east its own capital, and the empire as a whole its second. He chose the city of Byzantium renamed Constantinopolis as the site of this new foundation. Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus 27 February c. 272 22 May 337, commonly known in English as Constantine I , Constantine the Great , or (among Eastern Orthodox , Coptic Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Christians) Saint Constantine , was Roman emperor from 306, and the undisputed holder of that office from 324 until his death in 337. Best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine reversed the persecutions of his predecessor, Diocletian , and issued (with his co-emperor Licinius) the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious toleration throughout the empire. The Byzantine liturgical calendar, observed by the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine rite , lists both Constantine and his mother Helena as saints. Although he is not included in the Latin Church’s list of saints, which does recognize several other Constantines as saints, he is revered under the title “The Great” for his contributions to Christianity. Constantine also transformed the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium into a new imperial residence, Constantinople , which would remain the capital of the Byzantine Empire for over one thousand years. One of the great Roman emperors, Constantine rose to power when his father Constantius Chlorus died in the year 306 while campaigning against Scottish tribes. He later went on to defeat the rival emperor Maxentius in the decisive battle of Milvian Bridge in 312. He is credited for several great landmarks in history and is probably best memorialized by the city that bore his name for hundreds of years: Constantinople. Although now renamed Istanbul, this city was to be the seat of power for all Byzantine emperors for the next 1100 years. Constantine is also remembered as the first Roman emperor who embraced Christianity and instituted the buildings and papal dynasty that eventually grew into what is today the Vatican and the Pope. The latter part of his life saw his commitment to the church rise in step with the increasing repression against old-school paganism. He left behind several sons who would, after his death, turn on each other and generally undo much of the stability that Constantine had fought so hard to bring about. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. 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