MACRINUS and DIADUMENIAN Marcianopolis Athena Owl Ancient Roman Coin i38840
Item: i38840 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Macrinus – Roman Emperor: 217-218 A. Macrinus and His Son Diadumenian Bronze Pentassarion 26mm (11.72 grams) of Marcianopolis under Legate Furius Pontianus. AVT K OE CEV MAKPEINOC K M OE ANTNEINOC, bust of Macrinus, laureate facing bare-headed bust of Diadumenian. V ONTIANOV MAPKIANOPOEITN, Athena standing left, holding owl and spear, E in field to right. In Greek and Roman mythology , Glaucus Greek. Glaukos , “glaring (eyes)”; compare Greek glaux , owl, of the same origin is the symbolic owl of Athena or Minerva , respectively. Often referred to as the ” owl of Athena ” or ” owl of Minerva “, it accompanies Minerva in Roman myths , seen as a symbol of wisdom because the owl is capable of seeing even in the dark and of vigilance because the owl is awake at night. Helmeted Athena with the cista and Erichthonius in his serpent form. Roman, first century (Louvre Museum). In Greek religion and mythology , Athena or Athene , also referred to as Pallas Athena/Athene , is the goddess of wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, law and justice, just warfare, mathematics, strength, strategy, the arts, crafts, and skill. Minerva is the Roman goddess identified with Athena. Athena is also a shrewd companion of heroes and is the goddess of heroic endeavour. She is the virgin patroness of Athens. The Athenians founded the Parthenon on the Acropolis of her namesake city, Athens (Athena Parthenos), in her honour. Athena’s veneration as the patron of Athens seems to have existed from the earliest times, and was so persistent that archaic myths about her were recast to adapt to cultural changes. In her role as a protector of the city (polis), many people throughout the Greek world worshiped Athena as Athena Polias (“Athena of the city”). The city of Athens and the goddess Athena essentially bear the same name, “Athenai” meaning “[many] Athenas”. Athenian tetradrachm representing the goddess Athena. Athena as the goddess of philosophy became an aspect of the cult in Classical Greece during the late 5th century B. She is the patroness of various crafts, especially of weaving , as Athena Ergane , and was honored as such at festivals such as Chalceia. The metalwork of weapons also fell under her patronage. She led battles (Athena Promachos or the warrior maiden Athena Parthenos) as the disciplined, strategic side of war, in contrast to her brother Ares , the patron of violence, bloodlust and slaughter”the raw force of war”. Athena’s wisdom includes the cunning intelligence (metis) of such figures as Odysseus. Not only was this version of Athena the opposite of Ares in combat, it was also the polar opposite of the serene earth goddess version of the deity, Athena Polias. Athena appears in Greek mythology as the patron and helper of many heroes, including Odysseus , Jason , and Heracles. In Classical Greek myths, she never consorts with a lover, nor does she ever marry, earning the title Athena Parthenos. A remnant of archaic myth depicts her as the adoptive mother of Erechtheus / Erichthonius through the foiled rape by Hephaestus. Other variants relate that Erichthonius, the serpent that accompanied Athena, was born to Gaia : when the rape failed, the semen landed on Gaia and impregnated her. After Erechthonius was born, Gaia gave him to Athena. Though Athena is a goddess of war strategy, she disliked fighting without purpose and preferred to use wisdom to settle predicaments. The goddess only encouraged fighting for a reasonable cause or to resolve conflict. As patron of Athens she fought in the Trojan war on the side of the Achaeans. Athena competed with Poseidon to be the patron deity of Athens, which was yet unnamed, in a version of one founding myth. They agreed that each would give the Athenians one gift and that the Athenians would choose the gift they preferred. Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring sprang up; this gave them a means of trade and waterAthens at its height was a significant sea power, defeating the Persian fleet at the Battle of Salamis but the water was salty and not very good for drinking. Athena, however, offered them the first domesticated olive tree. The Athenians (or their king, Cecrops) accepted the olive tree and with it the patronage of Athena, for the olive tree brought wood, oil, and food. Robert Graves was of the opinion that “Poseidon’s attempts to take possession of certain cities are political myths” which reflect the conflict between matriarchal and patriarchal religions. Other sites of cult. Athena also was the patron goddess of several other Greek cities, notably Sparta, where the archaic cult of Athena Alea had its sanctuaries in the surrounding villages of Mantineia and, notably, Tegea. In Sparta itself, the temple of Athena Khalkíoikos (Athena “of the Brazen House”, often latinized as Chalcioecus) was the grandest and located on the Spartan acropolis; presumably it had a roof of bronze. The forecourt of the Brazen House was the place where the most solemn religious functions in Sparta took place. Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greece, containing the Temple of Athena Alea. The temenos was founded by Aleus , Pausanias was informed. Votive bronzes at the site from the Geometric and Archaic periods take the forms of horses and deer; there are sealstone and fibulae. In the Archaic period the nine villages that underlie Tegea banded together in a synoecism to form one city. Tegea was listed in Homer’s Catalogue of Ships as one of the cities that contributed ships and men for the Achaean assault on Troy. Aphrodite is being surveyed by Paris, while Athena (the leftmost figure) and Hera stand nearby. El Juicio de Paris by Enrique Simonet , ca. All the gods and goddesses as well as various mortals were invited to the marriage of Peleus and Thetis (the eventual parents of Achilles). Only Eris , goddess of discord, was not invited. She was annoyed at this, so she arrived with a golden apple inscribed with the word (kallisti, “for the fairest”), which she threw among the goddesses. Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena all claimed to be the fairest, and thus the rightful owner of the apple. The goddesses chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Paris, a Trojan prince. After bathing in the spring of Mount Ida (where Troy was situated), the goddesses appeared before Paris. The goddesses undressed and presented themselves to Paris naked, either at his request or for the sake of winning. Paris is awarding the apple to Aphrodite, while Athena makes a face. Urteil des Paris by Anton Raphael Mengs , ca. Still, Paris could not decide, as all three were ideally beautiful, so they resorted to bribes. Hera tried to bribe Paris with control over all Asia and Europe , while Athena offered wisdom, fame and glory in battle, but Aphrodite came forth and whispered to Paris that if he were to choose her as the fairest he would have the most beautiful mortal woman in the world as a wife, and he accordingly chose her. This woman was Helen , who was, unfortunately for Paris, already married to King Menelaus of Sparta. The other two goddesses were enraged by this and through Helen’s abduction by Paris they brought about the Trojan War. The Parthenon , Temple of Athena Parthenos. Athena had an “androgynous compromise” that allowed her traits and what she stood for to be attributed to male and female rulers alike over the course of history (such as Marie de’ Medici, Anne of Austria, Christina of Sweden, and Catherine the Great). Bachofen advocated that Athena was originally a maternal figure stable in her security and poise but was caught up and perverted by a patriarchal society; this was especially the case in Athens. The goddess adapted but could very easily be seen as a god. He viewed it as “motherless paternity in the place of fatherless maternity” where once altered, Athena’s character was to be crystallized as that of a patriarch. Whereas Bachofen saw the switch to paternity on Athena’s behalf as an increase of power, Freud on the contrary perceived Athena as an “original mother goddess divested of her power”. In this interpretation, Athena was demoted to be only Zeus’s daughter, never allowed the expression of motherhood. Still more different from Bachofen’s perspective is the lack of role permanency in Freud’s view: Freud held that time and differing cultures would mold Athena to stand for what was necessary to them. Marcianopolis , or Marcianople was an ancient Roman city in Thracia. It was located at the site of modern day Devnya , Bulgaria. The city was so renamed by Emperor Trajan after his sister Ulpia Marciana , and was previously known as Parthenopolis. Romans repulsed a Gothic attack to this town in 267 (or 268), during the reign of Gallienus. Diocletian made it the capital of the Moesia Secunda province. Valens made it his winter quarters in 368 and succeeding years, Emperor Justinian I restored and fortified it. In 587, it was sacked by the king of the Avars but at once retaken by the Romans. The Roman army quartered there in 596 before crossing the Danube to assault the Avars. Between 893 and 972 it was one of the most important medieval cities in south-eastern Europe. Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus or Diadumenian (208218) was the son of the Roman Emperor Macrinus, and served his father briefly as Caesar (May 217218) and as Augustus (in 218). Diadumenian was born in 14th of September 208 a. C or according to Historia Augusta in 19th of September 208 a. C because he shared the same birthday with the emperor Antoninus Pius. His mother was Empress Nonia Celsa, although her existence remains dubious, because she was only mentioned by the Historia Augusta. He was born Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus, but his name was changed and added Antoninus to solidify connection to the family of Marcus Aurelius as done by Caracalla. Diadumenian had little time to enjoy his position or to learn anything from its opportunities because the legions of Syria revolted and declared Elagabalus ruler of the Roman Empire. When Macrinus was defeated on June 8, 218, at Antioch, Diadumenian followed his father’s death. Marcus Opellius Macrinus ca. 165 – June 218 was Roman emperor for fourteen months in 217 and 218. Macrinus was the first emperor to become so without membership in the senatorial class. Macrinus was possibly of Berber descent. The item “MACRINUS and DIADUMENIAN Marcianopolis Athena Owl Ancient Roman Coin i38840″ is in sale since Wednesday, March 19, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Provincial (100-400 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.