TITUS Ancient Silver Roman Coin Ceres Agriculture Grain crops Fertility i53363
Item: i53363 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Titus – Roman Emperor : 79-81 A. Silver Denarius 17mm (3.18 grams) Struck circa 79-81 A. Reference: RIC 219 (Vespasian), S 2437, C 31 TCAESARVESPASIANVS – Laureate head right. CERESAVGVST – Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and torch. In ancient Roman religion , Ceres Latin. Was a goddess of agriculture , grain crops , fertility and motherly relationships. She was originally the central deity in Rome’s so-called plebeian or Aventine Triad , then was paired with her daughter Proserpina in what Romans described as “the Greek rites of Ceres”. Her seven-day April festival of Cerealia included the popular Ludi Ceriales (Ceres’ games). She was also honoured in the May lustration of fields at the Ambarvalia festival, at harvest-time, and during Roman marriages and funeral rites. Ceres is the only one of Rome’s many agricultural deities to be listed among the Di Consentes , Rome’s equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter , whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature. Ceres’ name may derive from the hypothetical Proto-Indo-European root ker , meaning “to grow”, which is also a possible root for many English words, such as “create”, “cereal”, “grow”, “kernel”, “corn”, and “increase”. Roman etymologists thought “ceres” derived from the Latin verb gerere , “to bear, bring forth, produce”, because the goddess was linked to pastoral , agricultural and human fertility. Archaic cults to Ceres are well-evidenced among Rome’s neighbours in the Regal period , including the ancient Latins , Oscans and Sabellians , less certainly among the Etruscans and Umbrians. An archaic Faliscan inscription of c. 600 BC asks her to provide far (spelt wheat), which was a dietary staple of the Mediterranean world. Throughout the Roman era, Ceres’ name was synonymous with grain and, by extension, with bread. Cults and cult themes. Ceres was credited with the discovery of spelt wheat (Latin far), the yoking of oxen and ploughing, the sowing, protection and nourishing of the young seed, and the gift of agriculture to humankind; before this, it was said, man had subsisted on acorns, and wandered without settlement or laws. She had the power to fertilise, multiply and fructify plant and animal seed, and her laws and rites protected all activities of the agricultural cycle. In January, Ceres was offered spelt wheat and a pregnant sow, along with the earth-goddess Tellus at the movable Feriae Sementivae. This was almost certainly held before the annual sowing of grain. The divine portion of sacrifice was the entrails (exta) presented in an earthenware pot (olla). In a rural context, Cato the Elder describes the offer to Ceres of a porca praecidanea (a pig, offered before the sowing). Before the harvest, she was offered a propitiary grain sample (praemetium). Ovid tells that Ceres “is content with little, provided that her offerings are casta ” (pure). Ceres’ main festival, Cerealia , was held from mid to late April. It was organised by her plebeian aediles and included circus games (ludi circenses). It opened with a horse-race in the Circus Maximus , whose starting point lay below and opposite to her Aventine Temple. The turning post at the far end of the Circus was sacred to Consus , a god of grain-storage. After the race, foxes were released into the Circus, their tails ablaze with lighted torches, perhaps to cleanse the growing crops and protect them from disease and vermin, or to add warmth and vitality to their growth. 175 BC, Cerealia included ludi scaenici (theatrical religious events), held through April 12 to 18. In the ancient sacrum cereale a priest, probably the Flamen Cerialis , invoked Ceres (and probably Tellus) along with twelve specialised, minor assistant-gods to secure divine protection and assistance at each stage of the grain cycle, beginning shortly before the Feriae Sementivae. Roscher lists these deities among the indigitamenta , names used to invoke specific divine functions. Vervactor , “He who ploughs”. Reparator , “He who prepares the earth”. Imporcitor , “He who ploughs with a wide furrow”. Insitor , “He who plants seeds”. Obarator , “He who traces the first plowing”. Occator , “He who harrows”. Serritor , “He who digs”. Subruncinator , “He who weeds”. Messor , “He who reaps”. Conuector (Convector), “He who carries the grain”. Conditor , “He who stores the grain”. Promitor , “He who distributes the grain”. Marriage, human fertility and nourishment. Several of Ceres’ ancient Italic precursors are connected to human fertility and motherhood; the Pelignan goddess Angitia Cerealis has been identified with the Roman goddess Angerona (associated with childbirth). Ceres’ torch was a mark of Roman weddings. Adult males were excluded from bridal processions; these took place at night and were headed by a young boy, who carried a torch in honour of Ceres. Pliny the Elder “notes that the most auspicious wood for wedding torches came from the spina alba , the may tree, which bore many fruits and hence symbolised fertility”. Once led thus to her husband’s home, the bride was a matron. Sacrifice was offered to Tellus on the bride’s behalf; a sow is the most likely victim. Varro describes the sacrifice of a pig as “a worthy mark of weddings” because “our women, and especially nurses” call the female genitalia porcus (pig). Spaeth (1996) believes Ceres may have been included in the sacrificial dedication, because she is closely identified with Tellus and “bears the laws” of marriage. In the most solemn form of marriage, confarreatio , the bride and groom shared a cake made of far, the ancient wheat-type particularly associated with Ceres. Funerary statue of an unknown woman, depicted as Ceres holding wheat. Mid 3rd century AD. From at least the mid-republican era, an official, joint cult to Ceres and Proserpina reinforced Ceres’ connection with Roman ideals of female virtue. The promotion of this cult coincides with the rise of a plebeian nobility, an increased birthrate among plebeian commoners, and a fall in the birthrate among patrician families. The late Republican Ceres Mater (Mother Ceres) is described as genetrix (progenitress) and alma (nourishing); in the early Imperial era she becomes an Imperial deity, and receives joint cult with Ops Augusta , Ceres’ own mother in Imperial guise and a bountiful genetrix in her own right. Ceres was patron and protector of plebeian laws , rights and Tribunes. Her Aventine Temple served the plebeians as cult centre, legal archive, treasury and possibly law-court; its foundation was contemporaneous with the passage of the Lex Sacrata , which established the office and person of plebeian aediles and tribunes as inviolate representatives of the Roman people. Tribunes were legally immune to arrest or threat, and the lives and property of those who violated this law were forfeit to Ceres. The Lex Hortensia of 287 BC extended plebeian laws to the city and all its citizens. The official decrees of the Senate (senatus consulta) were placed in Ceres’ Temple, under the guardianship of the goddess and her aediles. Livy puts the reason bluntly: the consuls could no longer seek advantage by arbitrarily tampering with the laws of Rome. The Temple might also have offered asylum for those threatened with arbitrary arrest by patrician magistrates. Successful prosecutions of those who offended the laws of Ceres raised fines and property distraints that funded her temple, games and cult. Ceres was thus the patron goddess of Rome’s written laws; the poet Vergil later calls her legifera Ceres (Law-bearing Ceres), a translation of Demeter’s Greek epithet, thesmophoros. Ceres’ role as protector of laws continued throughout the Republican era. The killing of the tribune Tiberius Gracchus in 133 BC was justified by some as rightful punishment for attempted tyranny, an offense against Ceres’ Lex sacrata. Others deplored his killing as murder, because the same “Lex sacrata” had made his person sacrosanct. In 70 BC, Cicero refers to this killing in connection with Ceres’ laws and cults, during his prosecution of Verres , Roman governor of Sicily, for extortion. The case included circumstantial details of Verres’ irreligious exploitation and abuse of Sicilian grain farmers, naturally under Ceres’ special protection at the very place of her “earthly home” and thefts from her temple, including an ancient image of the goddess herself. Faced by the mounting evidence against him, Verres abandoned his own defense and withdrew to a prosperous exile. Soon after, Cicero won election as aedile. As Ceres’ first plough-furrow opened the earth (Tellus’ realm) to the world of men and created the first field and its boundary, her laws determined the course of settled, lawful, civilised life. Crimes against fields and harvest were crimes against the people and their protective deity. Landowners who allowed their flocks to graze on public land were fined by the plebeian aediles, on behalf of Ceres and the people of Rome. Ancient laws of the Twelve Tables forbade the magical charming of field crops from a neighbour’s field into one’s own, and invoked the death penalty for the illicit removal of field boundaries. An adult who damaged or stole field-crops should be hanged “for Ceres”. Any youth guilty of the same offense was to be whipped or fined double the value of damage. Ceres protected transitions of women from girlhood to womanhood, from unmarried to married life and motherhood. She also maintained the boundaries between the realms of the living and the dead, regardless of their sex. Given the appropriate rites, she helped the deceased into afterlife as an underworld shade (Di Manes), else their spirit might remain to haunt the living, as a wandering, vengeful ghost (Lemur). For this service, well-off families offered Ceres sacrifice of a pig. The poor could offer wheat, flowers, and a libation. The expected afterlife for the exclusively female initiates in the sacra Cereris may have been somewhat different; they were offered “a method of living” and of “dying with better hope”. The mundus of Ceres. The mundus cerialis (literally “the world” of Ceres) was a hemispherical pit or underground vault in Rome; Cato describes its shape as a reflection or inversion of the dome of the upper heavens. On most days of the year, it was sealed by a stone lid known as the lapis manalis. On August 24, October 5 and November 8, it was opened with the official announcement ” mundus patet ” (“the mundus is open”), and offerings were made there to agricultural or underworld deities, including Ceres as goddess of the fruitful earth and guardian of its underworld portals. While the mundus was open, the spirits of the dead could lawfully emerge from the underworld and roam among the living, in what Warde Fowler describes as holidays, so to speak, for the ghosts. The origins and location of the mundus pit are disputed. The days when the mundus was open are identified in the oldest Roman calendar as C(omitiales) (days when the Comitia met) but by later authors as dies religiosus , when it would be irreligious to perform any official work: this apparent contradiction has led to the suggestion that the whole mundus ritual was not contemporary with Rome’s early calendar or early Cerean cult, but was a later Greek import. Nevertheless, the days when the mundus was open were connected to the official festivals of the agricultural cycle; the mundus rite of August 24 follows Consualia (an agricultural festival) and precedes Opiconsivia (another such). Other than the festivals of Parentalia and Lemuralia , these rites at the mundus cerialis on particular dies religiosi are the only known, regular official contacts with the spirits of the dead, or Di Manes. This may represent a secondary or late function of the mundus , attested no earlier than the Late Republican Era, by Varro. Warde Fowler speculates that it was originally Rome’s storehouse (penus) for the best of the harvest, to provide seed-grain for the next planting, then became the symbolic penus of the expanded Roman state. In Plutarch, the digging of such a pit to receive first-fruits and small quantities of native soil was an Etruscan colonial city-foundation rite. The rites of the mundus suggest Ceres as guardian deity of seed-corn, an essential deity in the establishment and agricultural prosperity of cities, and a door-warden of the underworld’s afterlife, in which her daughter Proserpina rules as queen-companion to Pluto or Dis. In Roman theology, prodigies were abnormal phenomena that manifested divine anger at human impiety. In Roman histories, prodigies are clustered around perceived or actual threats to the equilibrium of the Roman state, in particular, famine, war and social disorder, and are expiated as matters of urgency. The establishment of Ceres’ Aventine cult has itself been interpreted as an extraordinary expiation after the failure of crops and consequent famine. In Livy’s history, Ceres is among the deities placated after a remarkable series of prodigies that accompanied the disasters of the Second Punic War : during the same conflict, a lighting strike at her temple was expiated. A fast in her honour is recorded for 191 BC, to be repeated at 5-year intervals. After 206, she was offered at least 11 further official expiations. Many of these were connected to famine and manifestations of plebeian unrest, rather than war. From the Middle Republic onwards, expiation was increasingly addressed to her as mother to Proserpina. The last known followed Rome’s Great Fire of 64 AD. The cause or causes of the fire remained uncertain, but its disastrous extent was taken as a sign of offense against Juno , Vulcan , and Ceres-with-Proserpina, who were all were given expiatory cult. Champlin (2003) perceives the expiations to Vulcan and Ceres in particular as attempted populist appeals by the ruling emperor, Nero. The complex and multi-layered origins of the Aventine Triad and Ceres herself allowed multiple interpretations of their relationships; Cicero asserts Ceres as mother to both Liber and Libera, consistent with her role as a mothering deity. Varro’s more complex theology groups her functionally with Tellus, Terra, Venus (and thus Victoria) and with Libera as a female aspect of Liber. No native Roman myths of Ceres are known. According to interpretatio romana , which sought the equivalence of Roman to Greek deities, she was an equivalent to Demeter, one of the Twelve Olympians of Greek religion and mythology; this made Ceres one of Rome’s twelve Di Consentes , daughter of Saturn and Ops , sister of Jupiter , mother of Proserpina by Jupiter and sister of Juno , Vesta , Neptune and Pluto. Ceres’ known mythology is indistinguishable from Demeter’s. When Ceres sought through all the earth with lit torches for Proserpina, who had been seized by Dis Pater, she called her with shouts where three or four roads meet; from this it has endured in her rites that on certain days a lamentation is raised at the crossroads everywhere by the matronae. Ceres had strong mythological and cult connections with Sicily , especially at Henna (Enna), on whose “miraculous plain” flowers bloomed throughout the year. This was the place of Proserpina’s rape and abduction to the underworld and the site of Ceres’ most ancient Sanctuary. According to legend, she begged Jupiter that Sicily be placed in the heavens. The result, because the island is triangular in shape, was the constellation Triangulum , an early name of which was Sicilia. 80 15 BC describes the “Temple of Ceres near the Circus Maximus” (her Aventine Temple) as typically Araeostyle , having widely spaced supporting columns, with architraves of wood, rather than stone. This species of temple is “clumsy, heavy roofed, low and wide, [its] pediments ornamented with statues of clay or brass, gilt in the Tuscan fashion “. He recommends that temples to Ceres be sited in rural areas: in a solitary spot out of the city, to which the public are not necessarily led but for the purpose of sacrificing to her. This spot is to be reverenced with religious awe and solemnity of demeanour, by those whose affairs lead them to visit it. ” During the early Imperial era, soothsayers advised Pliny the Younger to restore an ancient, “old and narrow temple to Ceres, at his rural property near Como. It contained an ancient wooden cult statue of the goddess, which he replaced. Though this was unofficial, private cult (sacra privata) its annual feast on the Ides of September, the same day as the Epulum Jovis , was attended by pilgrims from all over the region. Pliny considered this rebuilding a fulfillment of his civic and religious duty. Denarius picturing Quirinus on the obverse , and Ceres enthroned on the reverse, a commemoration by a moneyer in 56 BC of a Cerialia, perhaps her first ludi , presented by an earlier Gaius Memmius as aedile. No images of Ceres survive from her pre-Aventine cults; the earliest date to the middle Republic, and show the Hellenising influence of Demeter’s iconography. Some late Republican images recall Ceres’ search for Proserpina. Ceres bears a torch, sometimes two, and rides in a chariot drawn by snakes; or she sits on the sacred kiste (chest) that conceals the objects of her mystery rites. Augustan reliefs show her emergence, plant-like from the earth, her arms entwined by snakes, her outstretched hands bearing poppies and wheat, or her head crowned with fruits and vines. In free-standing statuary, she commonly wears a wheat-crown, or holds a wheat spray. Moneyers of the Republican era use Ceres’ image, wheat ears and garlands to advertise their connections with prosperity, the annona and the popular interest. Some Imperial coin images depict important female members of the Imperial family as Ceres, or with some of her attributes. Ceres was served by several public priesthoods. Some were male; her senior priest, the flamen cerialis , also served Tellus and was usually plebeian by ancestry or adoption. Her public cult at the Ambarvalia , or “perambulation of fields” identified her with Dea Dia , and was led by the Arval Brethren (“The Brothers of the Fields”); rural versions of these rites were led as private cult by the heads of households. An inscription at Capua names a male sacerdos Cerialis mundalis , a priest dedicated to Ceres’ rites of the mundus. The plebeian aediles had minor or occasional priestly functions at Ceres’ Aventine Temple and were responsible for its management and financial affairs including collection of fines, the organisation of ludi Cerealia and probably the Cerealia itself. Their cure (care and jurisdiction) included, or came to include, the grain supply (annona) and later the plebeian grain doles (frumentationes), the organisation and management of public games in general, and the maintenance of Rome’s streets and public buildings. Otherwise, in Rome and throughout Italy, as at her ancient sanctuaries of Henna and Catena, Ceres’ ritus graecus and her joint cult with Proserpina were invariably led by female sacerdotes , drawn from women of local and Roman elites: Cicero notes that once the new cult had been founded, its earliest priestesses “generally were either from Naples or Velia”, cities allied or federated to Rome. Elsewhere, he describes Ceres’ Sicilian priestesses as “older women respected for their noble birth and character”. Celibacy may have been a condition of their office; sexual abstinence was, according to Ovid, required of those attending Ceres’ major, nine-day festival. Her public priesthood was reserved to respectable matrons, be they married, divorced or widowed. The process of their selection and their relationship to Ceres’ older, entirely male priesthood is unknown; but they far outnumbered her few male priests, and would have been highly respected and influential figures in their own communities. Archaic and Regal eras. Roman tradition credited Ceres’ eponymous festival, Cerealia , to Rome’s second king, the semi-legendary Numa. Ceres’ senior, male priesthood was a minor flaminate whose priesthood and rites were supposedly also innovations of Numa. Her affinity and joint cult with Tellus, also known as Terra Mater (Mother Earth) may have developed at this time. Much later, during the early Imperial era , Ovid describes these goddesses as “partners in labour”; Ceres provides the “cause” for the growth of crops, while Tellus provides them a place to grow. Ceres and the Aventine Triad. In 496 BC, against a background of economic recession and famine in Rome, imminent war against the Latins and a threatened secession by Rome’s plebs (citizen commoners), the dictator A. Postumius vowed a temple to Ceres, Liber and Libera on or near the Aventine Hill. The famine ended and Rome’s plebeian citizen-soldiery co-operated in the conquest of the Latins. Postumius’ vow was fulfilled in 493 BC: Ceres became the central deity of the new Triad , housed in a new-built Aventine temple. She was also or became the patron goddess of the plebs , whose enterprise as tenant farmers, estate managers, agricultural factors and importers was a mainstay of Roman agriculture. Much of Rome’s grain was imported from territories of Magna Graecia , particularly from Sicily , which later Roman mythographers describe as Ceres’ “earthly home”. Writers of the late Roman Republic and early Empire describe Ceres’ Aventine temple and rites as conspicuously Greek. In modern scholarship, this is taken as further evidence of long-standing connections between the plebeians, Ceres and Magna Graecia. It also raises unanswered questions on the nature, history and character of these associations: the Triad itself may have been a self-consciously Roman cult formulation based on Greco-Italic precedents. To complicate matters further, when a new form of Cerean cult was officially imported from Magna Graecia, it was known as the ritus graecus (Greek rite) of Ceres, and was distinct from her older Roman rites. The older forms of Aventine rites to Ceres remain uncertain. Most Roman cults were led by men, and the officiant’s head was covered by a fold of his toga. In the Roman ritus graecus , a male celebrant wore Greek-style vestments, and remained bareheaded before the deity, or else wore a wreath. While Ceres’ original Aventine cult was led by male priests, her “Greek rites” (ritus graecus Cereris) were exclusively female. Towards the end of the Second Punic War , around 205 BC, an officially recognised joint cult to Ceres and her daughter Proserpina was brought to Rome from southern Italy (part of Magna Graecia) along with Greek priestesses to serve it. In Rome, this was known as the ritus graecus Cereris ; its priestesses were granted Roman citizenship so that they could pray to the gods “with a foreign and external knowledge, but with a domestic and civil intention”. The cult was based on ancient, ethnically Greek cults to Demeter, most notably the Thesmophoria to Demeter and Persephone , whose cults and myths also provided a basis for the Eleusinian mysteries. From the end of the 3rd century BC, Demeter’s temple at Enna , in Sicily , was acknowledged as Ceres’ oldest, most authoritative cult centre, and Libera was recognised as Proserpina, Roman equivalent to Demeter’s daughter Persephone. Their joint cult recalls Demeter’s search for Persephone, after the latter’s rape and abduction into the underworld by Hades. The new cult to “mother and maiden” took its place alongside the old, but made no reference to Liber. Thereafter, Ceres was offered two separate and distinctive forms of official cult at the Aventine. Both might have been supervised by the male flamen Cerialis but otherwise, their relationship is unclear. The older form of cult included both men and women, and probably remained a focus for plebeian political identity and discontent. The new identified its exclusively females initiates and priestesses as upholders of Rome’s traditional, patrician -dominated social hierarchy and mores. Ceres and Magna Mater. A year after the import of the ritus cereris , patrician senators imported cult to the Greek goddess Cybele and established her as Magna Mater (The Great Mother) within Rome’s sacred boundary , facing the Aventine Hill. Like Ceres, Cybele was a form of Graeco-Roman earth goddess. Unlike her, she had mythological ties to Troy , and thus to the Trojan prince Aeneas , mythological ancestor of Rome’s founding father and first patrician Romulus. The establishment of official Roman cult to Magna Mater coincided with the start of a new saeculum (cycle of years). It was followed by Hannibal’s defeat, the end of the Punic War and an exceptionally good harvest. Roman victory and recovery could therefore be credited to Magna Mater and patrician piety: so the patricians dined her and each other at her festival banquets. In similar fashion, the plebeian nobility underlined their claims to Ceres. Up to a point, the two cults reflected a social and political divide, but when certain prodigies were interpreted as evidence of Ceres’ displeasure, the senate appeased her with a new festival, the ieiunium Cereris (” fast of Ceres”). In 133 BC, the plebeian noble Tiberius Gracchus bypassed the Senate and appealed directly to the popular assembly to pass his proposed land-reforms. Civil unrest spilled into violence; Gracchus and many of his supporters were murdered by their conservative opponents. At the behest of the Sibylline oracle , the senate sent the quindecimviri to Ceres’ ancient cult centre at Henna in Sicily , the goddess’ supposed place of origin and earthly home. Some kind of religious consultation or propitiation was given, either to expiate Gracchus’ murder as later Roman sources would claim or to justify it as the lawful killing of a would-be king or demagogue , a homo sacer who had offended Ceres’ laws against tyranny. The Eleusinian mysteries became increasingly popular during the late Republic. Early Roman initiates at Eleusis in Greece included Sulla and Cicero ; thereafter many Emperors were initiated, including Hadrian , who founded an Eleusinian cult centre in Rome itself. In Late Republican politics, aristocratic traditionalists and popularists used coinage to propagated their competing claims to Ceres’ favour. A coin of Sulla shows Ceres on one side, on the other a ploughman with yoked oxen: the images, accompanied by the legend “conditor” , claim his rule (a military dictatorship) as regenerative and divinely justified. Popularists used her name and attributes to appeal their guardianship of plebeian interests, particularly the annona and frumentarium ; and plebeian nobles and aediles used them to point out their ancestral connections with plebeian commoners. In the decades of Civil War that ushered in the Empire, such images and dedications proliferate on Rome’s coinage: Julius Caesar , his opponents, his assassins and his heirs alike claimed the favour and support of Ceres and her plebeian proteges, with coin issues that celebrate Ceres, Libertas (liberty) and Victoria (victory). Emperors celebrated imperial and divine partnerships in grain import and provision. On this Sestercius of 66 AD, Nero’s garlanded head is left. Opposite, a standing Annona holds cornucopiae (horns of Plenty) and enthroned Ceres holds grain-ears and torch. Imperial theology conscripted Rome’s traditional cults as the divine upholders of Imperial Pax (peace) and prosperity, for the benefit of all. The emperor Augustus began the restoration of Ceres’ Aventine Temple; his successor Tiberius completed it. Of the several figures on the Augustan Ara Pacis , one doubles as a portrait of the Empress Livia , who wears Ceres’ corona spicea. Another has been variously identified in modern scholarship as Tellus, Venus, Pax or Ceres, or in Spaeth’s analysis, a deliberately broad composite of them all. The emperor Claudius’ reformed the grain supply and created its embodiment as an Imperial goddess, Annona , a junior partner to Ceres and the Imperial family. The traditional, Cerean virtues of provision and nourishment were symbolically extended to Imperial family members with coinage that showed Claudius’ mother Antonia as Augusta with corona spicea. The relationship between the reigning emperor, empress and Ceres was formalised in titles such as Augusta mater agrorum (The august mother of the fields) and Ceres Augusta. On coinage, various emperors and empresses wear her corona spicea , showing that the goddess, the emperor and his spouse are conjointly responsible for agricultural prosperity and the all-important provision of grain. A coin of Nerva (reigned AD 9698) acknowledges Rome’s dependence on the princeps’ gift of frumentio (corn dole) to the masses. Under Nerva’s later dynastic successor Antoninus Pius , Imperial theology represents the death and apotheosis of the Empress Faustina the Elder as Ceres’ return to Olympus by Jupiter’s command. Even then, “her care for mankind continues and the world can rejoice in the warmth of her daughter Proserpina: in Imperial flesh, Proserpina is Faustina the Younger “, empress-wife of Pius’ successor Marcus Aurelius. In Britain, a soldier’s inscription of the 2nd century AD attests to Ceres’ role in the popular syncretism of the times. She is “the bearer of ears of corn”, the “Syrian Goddess”, identical with the universal heavenly Mother, the Magna Mater and Virgo , virgin mother of the gods. She is peace and virtue, and inventor of justice: she weighs “Life and Right” in her scale. Septimius Severus (AD 193211), showing his empress, Julia Domna , in the corona spicea. After the reign of Claudius Gothicus , no coinage shows Ceres’ image. Even so, an initiate of her mysteries is attested in the 5th century AD, after the official abolition of all non-Christian cults. The word cereals derives from Ceres, commemorating her association with edible grains. Statues of Ceres top the domes of the Missouri State Capitol and the Vermont State House serving as a reminder of the importance of agriculture in the states’ economies and histories. There is also a statue of her on top of the Chicago Board of Trade Building , which conducts trading in agricultural commodities. The dwarf planet Ceres (discovered 1801), is named after this goddess. And in turn, the chemical element cerium (discovered 1803) was named after the dwarf planet. A poem about Ceres and humanity features in Dmitri’s confession to his brother Alexei in Dostoevsky’s The Brothers Karamazov , Part 1, Book 3, Chapter 3. Ceres appears as a character in William Shakespeare’s play The Tempest (1611). An aria in praise of Ceres is sung in Act 4 of the opera The Trojans by Hector Berlioz. The goddess Ceres is one of the three goddess offices held in the The National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry. The other goddesses are Pomona , and Flora. Ceres is depicted on the Seal of New Jersey as a symbol of prosperity. Ceres was depicted on several ten and twenty Confederate States of America dollar notes. Titus Flavius Vespasianus , commonly known as Titus (December 30, 39 September 13, 81), was a Roman Emperor who briefly reigned from 79 until his death in 81. Titus was the second emperor of the Flavian dynasty , which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 and 96, encompassing the reigns of Titus’s father Vespasian (6979), Titus himself (7981) and his younger brother Domitian (8196). Prior to becoming emperor, Titus gained renown as a military commander, serving under his father in Judaea during the First Jewish-Roman War , which was fought between 67 and 70. When Vespasian was declared emperor on July 1, 69, Titus was left in charge of ending the Jewish rebellion, which he did in 70, successfully besieging and destroying the city and the Temple of Jerusalem. For this achievement Titus was awarded a triumph ; the Arch of Titus commemorates his victory to this day. Under the rule of his father, Titus gained infamy in Rome serving as prefect of the Roman imperial bodyguard , known as the Praetorian Guard , and for carrying on a controversial relationship with the Jewish queen Berenice. Despite concerns over his character, however, Titus ruled to great acclaim following the death of Vespasian on June 23, 79, and was considered a good emperor by Suetonius and other contemporary historians. In this role he is best known for his public building program in Romecompleting the Flavian Amphitheatre , otherwise known as the Colosseum and for his generosity in relieving the suffering caused by two disasters, the Mount Vesuvius eruption of 79 and the fire of Rome of 80. After barely two years in office, Titus died of a fever on September 13, 81. He was deified by the Roman Senate and succeeded by his younger brother Domitian. Titus was born in Rome , probably on 30 December 39, as the eldest son of Titus Flavius Vespasianus commonly known as Vespasianand Domitilla the Elder. He had one younger sister, Domitilla the Younger b. 45, and one younger brother, also named Titus Flavius Domitianus b. 51, but commonly referred to as Domitian. Decades of civil war during the 1st century BC had contributed greatly to the demise of the old aristocracy of Rome, which was gradually replaced in prominence by a new provincial nobility during the early part of the 1st century. One such family was the gens Flavia , which rose from relative obscurity to prominence in just four generations, acquiring wealth and status under the emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Titus’s great-grandfather, Titus Flavius Petro , had served as a centurion under Pompey during Caesar’s civil war. His military career ended in disgrace when he fled the battlefield at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC. Nevertheless, Petro managed to improve his status by marrying the extremely wealthy Tertulla, whose fortune guaranteed the upwards mobility of Petro’s son Titus Flavius Sabinus I , Titus’s grandfather. By marrying Vespasia Polla he allied himself to the more prestigious patrician gens Vespasia , ensuring the elevation of his sons Titus Flavius Sabinus II and Vespasian to the senatorial rank. The political career of Vespasian included the offices of quaestor , aedile and praetor , and culminated with a consulship in 51, the year Domitian was born. As a military commander, he gained early renown by participating in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43. What little is known of Titus’s early life has been handed down to us by Suetonius , who records that he was brought up at the imperial court in the company of Britannicus , the son of emperor Claudius , who would be murdered by Nero in 55. The story was even told that Titus was reclining next to Britannicus, the night he was murdered, and sipped of the poison that was handed to him. Further details on his education are scarce, but it seems he showed early promise in the military arts and was a skilled poet and orator both in Greek and Latin. 57 to 59 he was a military tribune in Germania. He also served in Britannia , perhaps arriving c. 60 with reinforcements needed after the revolt of Boudica. Titus then took a new wife of a much more distinguished family, Marcia Furnilla. However, Marcia’s family was closely linked to the opposition to Nero. Her uncle Barea Soranus and his daughter Servilia were among those who perished after the failed Pisonian conspiracy of 65. Some modern historians theorize that Titus divorced his wife because of her family’s connection to the conspiracy. Titus appears to have had multiple daughters, at least one of them by Marcia Furnilla. The only one known to have survived to adulthood was Julia Flavia , perhaps Titus’s child by Arrecina, whose mother was also named Julia. During this period Titus also practiced law and attained the rank of quaestor. The province of Judaea during the 1st century. In 66 the Jews of the Judaea Province revolted against the Roman Empire. Cestius Gallus , the legate of Syria , was defeated at the battle of Beth-Horon and forced to retreat from Jerusalem. The pro-Roman king Agrippa II and his sister Berenice fled the city to Galilee where they later gave themselves up to the Romans. Nero appointed Vespasian to put down the rebellion, who was dispatched to the region at once with the fifth and tenth legions. He was later joined by Titus at Ptolemais , bringing with him the fifteenth legion. With a strength of 60,000 professional soldiers, the Romans prepared to sweep across Galilee and march on Jerusalem. The history of the war was covered in dramatic detail by the Roman-Jewish historian Josephus in his work The Wars of the Jews. Josephus served as a commander in the city of Jotapata when the Roman army invaded Galilee in 67. After an exhausting siege which lasted 47 days, the city fell, with an estimated 40,000 killed and the remaining Jewish resistance committing suicide. Josephus himself surrendered to Vespasian, became a prisoner and provided the Romans with intelligence on the ongoing revolt. By 68, the entire coast and the north of Judaea were subjugated by the Roman army, with decisive victories won at Taricheae and Gamala , where Titus distinguished himself as a skilled general. Year of the Four Emperors. Map of the Roman Empire during the Year of the Four Emperors (69 AD). Blue areas indicate provinces loyal to Vespasian and Gaius Licinius Mucianus. The last and most significant fortress of Jewish resistance was Jerusalem. However the campaign came to a sudden halt when news arrived of Nero’s death. Almost simultaneously, the Roman Senate had declared Galba , then governor of Hispania , as Emperor of Rome. Vespasian decided to await further orders, and sent Titus to greet the new princeps. Before reaching Italy, Titus learnt that Galba had been murdered and replaced by Otho , governor of Lusitania , and that Vitellius and his armies in Germania were preparing to march on the capital, intent on overthrowing Otho. Not wanting to risk being taken hostage by one side or the other, he abandoned the journey to Rome and rejoined his father in Judaea. Meanwhile, Otho was defeated in the First Battle of Bedriacum and committed suicide. When the news spread across the armies in Judaea and Ægyptus , they took matters into their own hands and declared Vespasian emperor on July 1, 69. Vespasian accepted, and through negotiations by Titus joined forces with Gaius Licinius Mucianus , governor of Syria. A strong force drawn from the Judaean and Syrian legions marched on Rome under the command of Mucianus, while Vespasian himself travelled to Alexandria , leaving Titus in charge to end the Jewish rebellion. By the end of 69 the forces of Vitellius had been beaten, and Vespasian was officially declared emperor by the Senate on December 21, thus ending the Year of the Four Emperors. Destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem , Francesco Hayez , oil on canvas, 1867. Depicting the destruction and looting of the Second Temple by the Roman army. Meanwhile the Jews had become embroiled in a civil conflict of their own, splitting the resistance in the city among two factions; the Sicarii led by Simon Bar Giora , and the Zealots led by John of Gischala. Titus seized the opportunity to begin the assault on Jerusalem. The Roman army was joined by the twelfth legion , which was previously defeated under Cestius Gallus , and from Alexandria Vespasian sent Tiberius Julius Alexander , governor of Ægyptus, to act as Titus’s second in command. Titus surrounded the city, with three legions (Vth, XIIth and XVth) on the western side and one (Xth) on the Mount of Olives to the east. He put pressure on the food and water supplies of the inhabitants by allowing pilgrims to enter the city to celebrate Passover , and then refusing them egress. Jewish raids continuously harassed the Roman army, one of which nearly resulted in Titus being captured. After attempts by Josephus to negotiate a surrender had failed, the Romans resumed hostilities and quickly breached the first and second walls of the city. To intimidate the resistance, Titus ordered deserters from the Jewish side to be crucified around the city wall. By this time the Jews had been thoroughly exhausted by famine , and when the weak third wall was breached bitter street fighting ensued. The Romans finally captured the Antonia Fortress and began a frontal assault on the gates of the Temple. According to Josephus, Titus had ordered that the Temple itself should not be destroyed, but while the fighting around the gates continued a soldier hurled a torch inside one of the windows, which quickly set the entire building ablaze. The later Christian chronicler Sulpicius Severus , possibly drawing on a lost portion of Tacitus’ Histories , claims that Titus favoured destruction of the Temple. Whatever the case, the Temple was completely demolished, after which Titus’s soldiers proclaimed him imperator in honor of the victory. Jerusalem was sacked and much of the population killed or dispersed. Josephus claims that 1,100,000 people were killed during the siege, of which a majority were Jewish. 97,000 were captured and enslaved, including Simon Bar Giora and John of Gischala. Many fled to areas around the Mediterranean. Titus reportedly refused to accept a wreath of victory, as he claimed there is “no merit in vanquishing people forsaken by their own God”. Titus’ triumph after the First Jewish-Roman War was celebrated with the Arch of Titus in Rome, which shows the treasures taken from the Temple in Jerusalem , including the Menorah and the Trumpets of jericho. Unable to sail to Italy during the winter, Titus celebrated elaborate games at Caesarea Maritima and Berytus , then travelled to Zeugma on the Euphrates , where he was presented with a crown by Vologases I of Parthia. While visiting Antioch he confirmed the traditional rights of the Jews in that city. On his way to Alexandria , he stopped in Memphis to consecrate the sacred bull Apis. According to Suetonius , this caused consternation; the ceremony required Titus to wear a diadem , which the Romans associated with kingship , and the partisanship of Titus’s legions had already led to fears that he might rebel against his father. Upon his arrival in the city in 71, Titus was awarded a triumph. Accompanied by Vespasian and Domitian he rode into the city, enthusiastically saluted by the Roman populace and preceded by a lavish parade containing treasures and captives from the war. Josephus describes a procession with large amounts of gold and silver carried along the route, followed by elaborate re-enactments of the war, Jewish prisoners, and finally the treasures taken from the Temple of Jerusalem, including the Menorah and the Pentateuch. Simon Bar Giora was executed in the Forum , after which the procession closed with religious sacrifices at the Temple of Jupiter. The triumphal Arch of Titus , which stands at one entrance to the Forum, memorializes the victory of Titus. The Arch of Titus , located on the Via Sacra , just to the south-east of the Forum Romanum in Rome. With Vespasian declared emperor, Titus and his brother Domitian likewise received the title of Caesar from the Senate. In addition to sharing tribunician power with his father, Titus held seven consulships during Vespasian’s reign and acted as his secretary, appearing in the Senate on his behalf. More crucially, he was appointed commander of the Praetorian Guard , ensuring their loyalty to the emperor and further solidifying Vespasian’s position as a legitimate ruler. In this capacity he achieved considerable notoriety in Rome for his violent actions, frequently ordering the execution of suspected traitors on the spot. When in 79, a plot by Aulus Caecina Alienus and Eprius Marcellus to overthrow Vespasian was uncovered, Titus invited Alienus to dinner and ordered him to be stabbed before he had even left the room. During the Jewish wars, Titus had begun a love affair with Berenice , sister of Agrippa II. The Herodians had collaborated with the Romans during the rebellion, and Berenice herself had supported Vespasian upon his campaign to become emperor. The Romans were wary of the Eastern Queen and disapproved of their relationship. When the pair was publicly denounced by Cynics in the theatre, Titus caved in to the pressure and sent her away, but his reputation further suffered. Vespasian died of an infection on June 23 79 AD, and was immediately succeeded by his son Titus. Because of his many alleged vices , many Romans feared at this point that he would be another Nero. Against these expectations, however, Titus proved to be an effective emperor and was well-loved by the population, who praised him highly when they found that he possessed the greatest virtues instead of vices. One of his first acts as an emperor was to publicly order a halt to trials based on treason charges, which had long plagued the principate. The law of treason , or law maiestas , was originally intended to prosecute those who had corruptly’impaired the people and majesty of Rome’ by any revolutionary action. Under Augustus , however, this custom had been revived and applied to cover slander or libellous writings as well, eventually leading to a long cycle of trials and executions under such emperors as Tiberius , Caligula and Nero, spawning entire networks of informers that terrorized Rome’s political system for decades. Titus put an end to this practice, against himself or anyone else, declaring. It is impossible for me to be insulted or abused in any way. For I do naught that deserves censure, and I care not for what is reported falsely. As for the emperors who are dead and gone, they will avenge themselves in case anyone does them a wrong, if in very truth they are demigods and possess any power. Consequently, no senators were put to death during his reign; he thus kept to his promise that he would assume the office of Pontifex Maximus “for the purpose of keeping his hands unstained “. The informants were publicly punished and banished from the city, and Titus further prevented abuses by introducing legislation that made it unlawful for persons to be tried under different laws for the same offense. As emperor he became known for his generosity, and Suetonius states that upon realising he had brought no benefit to anyone during a whole day he remarked, Friends, I have lost a day. The 79 eruption of Mount Vesuvius completely destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum. Today plaster casts of actual victims found during excavations are on display in some of the ruins. Although his administration was marked by a relative absence of major military or political conflicts, Titus faced a number of major disasters during his brief reign. On August 24, 79, barely two months after his accession, Mount Vesuvius erupted , resulting in the almost complete destruction of life and property in the cities and resort communities around the Bay of Naples. The cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were buried under metres of stone and lava , killing thousands of citizens. Additionally, he visited Pompeii once after the eruption and again the following year. During the second visit, in spring of AD 80, a fire broke out in Rome, burning large parts of the city for three days and three nights. Although the extent of the damage was not as disastrous as during the Great Fire of 64crucially sparing the many districts of insulae Cassius Dio records a long list of important public buildings that were destroyed, including Agrippa’s Pantheon , the Temple of Jupiter , the Diribitorium , parts of Pompey’s Theatre and the Saepta Julia among others. Once again, Titus personally compensated for the damaged regions. According to Suetonius, a plague similarly struck during the fire. The nature of the disease, however, or the death toll are unknown. Meanwhile war had resumed in Britannia , where Gnaeus Julius Agricola pushed further into Caledonia and managed to establish several forts there. As a result of his actions, Titus received the title of Imperator for the fifteenth time. His reign also saw the rebellion led by Terentius Maximus , one of several false Neros who continued to appear throughout the 70s. Although Nero was primarily known as a universally hated tyrant there is evidence that for much of his reign, he remained highly popular in the eastern provinces. Reports that Nero had in fact survived the assassination attempts were fueled by the vague circumstances surrounding his death and several prophecies foretelling his return. According to Cassius Dio, Terentius Maximus resembled Nero in voice and appearance and, like him, sang to the lyre. Terentius established a following in Asia minor but was soon forced to flee beyond the Euphrates , taking refuge with the Parthians. In addition, sources state that Titus discovered that his brother Domitian was plotting against him but refused to have him killed or banished. The Flavian Amphitheatre, better known as the Colosseum, was completed during the reign of Titus and inaugurated with spectacular games that lasted for 100 days. See Inaugural games of the Flavian Amphitheatre. Construction of the Flavian Amphitheatre, presently better known as the Colosseum , was begun in 70 under Vespasian and finally completed in 80 under Titus. In addition to providing spectacular entertainments to the Roman populace, the building was also conceived as a gigantic triumphal monument to commemorate the military achievements of the Flavians during the Jewish wars. The inaugural games lasted for a hundred days and were said to be extremely elaborate, including gladiatorial combat , fights between wild animals (elephants and cranes), mock naval battles for which the theatre was flooded, horse races and chariot races. During the games, wooden balls were dropped into the audience, inscribed with various prizes (clothing , gold , or even slaves), which could then be traded for the designated item. Adjacent to the amphitheatre, within the precinct of Nero’s Golden House , Titus had also ordered the construction of a new public bath-house , which was to bear his name. Construction of this building was hastily finished to coincide with the completion of the Flavian Amphitheatre. Practice of the imperial cult was revived by Titus, though apparently it met with some difficulty as Vespasian was not deified until six months after his death. To further honor and glorify the Flavian dynasty , foundations were laid for what would later become the Temple of Vespasian and Titus , which was finished by Domitian. At the closing of the games, Titus officially dedicated the amphitheatre and the baths, which was to be his final recorded act as an emperor. He set out for the Sabine territories but fell ill at the first posting station where he died of a fever , reportedly in the same farm-house as his father. Allegedly, the last words he uttered before passing away were: “I have made but one mistake”. Titus had ruled the Roman Empire for just over two years, from the death of his father in 79 to his own on September 13 81. He was succeeded by Domitian, whose first act as emperor was to deify his brother. Historians have speculated on the exact nature of his death, and to which mistake Titus alluded in his final words. Philostratus writes that he was poisoned by Domitian with a sea hare , and that his death had been foretold to him by Apollonius of Tyana. Suetonius and Cassius Dio maintain he died of natural causes, but both accuse Domitian of having left the ailing Titus for dead. Consequently, Dio believes Titus’s mistake refers to his failure to have his brother executed when he was found to be openly plotting against him. According to the Babylonian Talmud (Gittin 56b), an insect flew into Titus’s nose and picked at his brain for seven years. He noticed that the sound of a blacksmith hammering caused the ensuing pain to abate, so he paid for blacksmiths to hammer nearby him; however, the effect wore off and the insect resumed its gnawing. When he died, they opened his skull and found the insect had grown to the size of a bird. The Talmud gives this as the cause of his death and interprets it as divine retribution for his wicked actions. Titus’s record among ancient historians stands as one of the most exemplary of any emperor. All the surviving accounts from this period, many of them written by his own contemporaries, present a highly favourable view towards Titus. His character has especially prospered in comparison with that of his brother Domitian. The Wars of the Jews offers a first-hand, eye-witness account on the Jewish rebellion and the character of Titus. The neutrality of Josephus’ writings has come into question however as he was heavily indebted to the Flavians. In 71, he arrived in Rome in the entourage of Titus, became a Roman citizen and took on the Roman nomen Flavius and praenomen Titus from his patrons. He received an annual pension and lived in the palace. It was while in Rome, and under Flavian patronage , that Josephus wrote all of his known works. The War of the Jews is heavily slanted against the leaders of the revolt, portraying the rebellion as weak and unorganized, and even blaming the Jews for causing the war. The credibility of Josephus as a historian has subsequently come under fire. Another contemporary of Titus was Publius Cornelius Tacitus , who started his public career in 80 or 81 and credits the Flavian dynasty with his elevation. The Histories his account of this periodwas published during the reign of Trajan. Unfortunately only the first five books from this work have survived until the present day, with the text on Titus’s and Domitian’s reign entirely lost. Suetonius Tranquilius gives a short but highly favourable account on Titus’s reign in The Lives of Twelve Caesars , emphasizing his military achievements and his generosity as Emperor, in short describing him as follows. Titus, of the same surname as his father, was the delight and darling of the human race; such surpassing ability had he, by nature, art, or good fortune, to win the affections of all men, and that, too, which is no easy task, while he was emperor. Finally, Cassius Dio wrote his Roman History over a hundred years after the death of Titus. He shares a similar outlook as Suetonius, possibly even using the latter as a source, but is more reserved, noting. His satisfactory record may also have been due to the fact that he survived his accession but a very short time, for he was thus given no opportunity for wrongdoing. For he lived after this only two years, two months and twenty days in addition to the thirty-nine years, five months and twenty-five days he had already lived at that time. In this respect, indeed, he is regarded as having equalled the long reign of Augustus , since it is maintained that Augustus would never have been loved had he lived a shorter time, nor Titus had he lived longer. For Augustus, though at the outset he showed himself rather harsh because of the wars and the factional strife, was later able, in the course of time, to achieve a brilliant reputation for his kindly deeds; Titus, on the other hand, ruled with mildness and died at the height of his glory, whereas, if he had lived a long time, it might have been shown that he owes his present fame more to good fortune than to merit. Pliny the Elder , who later died during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, dedicated his Naturalis Historia to Titus. In contrast to the ideal portrayal of Titus in Roman histories, in Jewish memory “Titus the Wicked” is remembered as an evil oppressor and destroyer of the Temple. For example, one legend in the Babylonian Talmud describes Titus as having had sex with a whore on a Torah scroll inside the Temple during its destruction. Titus in later arts. The Triumph of Titus , by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1885). The composition suggests a love affair between Titus and Domitian’s wife Domitia Longina (see below). The war in Judaea and the life of Titus, particularly his relationship with Berenice, have inspired writers and artists through the centuries. The bas-relief in the Arch of Titus has been influential in the depiction of the destruction of Jerusalem , with the Menorah frequently being used to symbolise the looting of the Second Temple. Bérénice , a play by Jean Racine (1670) which focuses on the love affair between Titus and Berenice. Tite et Bérénice , a play by Pierre Corneille which was in competition with Racine the same year, and concerns the same subject matter. La clemenza di Tito , an opera by Mozart , about a fictional romance between Emperor Titus and Vitellia, daughter of Vitellius. The Josephus Trilogy , novels by Lion Feuchtwanger , about the life of Flavius Josephus and his relation with the Flavian dynasty. Der jüdische Krieg (Josephus), 1932. Die Söhne (The Jews of Rome), 1935. Der Tag wird kommen (The day will come , Josephus and the Emperor), 1942. The Marcus Didius Falco novels, which take place during the reign of Vespasian. The Roman Mysteries , a series of children’s books which take place during the reign of Titus. The High School Latin textbook series Ecce Romani takes place during the reign of Titus. The Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus by Wilhelm von Kaulbach (1846). Oil on canvas, 585 x 705 cm. An allegorical depiction of the destruction of Jerusalem , dramatically centered around the figure of Titus. The Destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem Nicolas Poussin (1637). Oil on canvas, 147 x 198,5 cm. Depicts the destruction and looting of the Second Temple by the Roman army led by Titus. The Destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem by Francesco Hayez (1867). Oil on canvas, 183 x 252 cm. Galleria d’Arte Moderna, Venice. Depicts the destruction and looting of the Second Temple by the Roman army. The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans Under the Command of Titus, A. 70 by David Roberts (1850). Oil on canvas, 136 x 197 cm. Depicts the burning and looting of Jerusalem by the Roman army under Titus. The Triumph of Titus and Vespasian by Giulio Romano (1540). Oil on wood, 170 x 120 cm. Depicts Titus and Vespasian as they ride into Rome on a triumphal chariot, preceded by a parade carrying spoils from the war in Judaea. The painting anachronistically features the Arch of Titus, which was not completed until the reign of Domitian. The Triumph of Titus by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1885). This painting depicts the triumphal procession of Titus and his family. Alma-Tadema was known for his meticulous historical research on the ancient world. Vespasian, dressed as Pontifex Maximus , walks at the head of his family, followed by Domitian and his first wife Domitia Longina , who he had only recently married. Behind Domitian follows Titus, dressed in religious regalia. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? I can answer your questions via telephone at 1 (917) 776 7363. When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “TITUS Ancient Silver Roman Coin Ceres Agriculture Grain crops Fertility i53363″ is in sale since Tuesday, December 8, 2015. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
- Ruler: Titus
- Composition: Silver