COMMODUS son of Marcus Philippopolis Aurelius Ancient Roman Coin EAGLE i22608
Item: i22608 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Commodus – Roman Emperor: 177-192 A. Bronze 18mm (4.07 grams) Struck at the Roman provincial city of Philippopolis in Thrace: circa 177-192 A. AVT K M AVP KOMO OC, Laureate head right. IIOOEITN, Eagle standing three-quarters to right, wings opened, head left. Is the second-largest city in Bulgaria with a population of 380,683. Plovdiv’s history spans some 6,000 years, with traces of a Neolithic settlement dating to roughly 4000 BC. It is the administrative center of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria and three municipalities (Plovdiv, Maritsa and Rodopi) and Bulgaria’s Yuzhen tsentralen planning region (NUTS II), as well as the largest and most important city in Northern Thrace and the wider international historical region of Thrace. The city is an important economic, transport, cultural and educational center. Known in the West for most of its history by the Greek name Philippopolis , it was originally a Thracian settlement before becoming a major Roman city. In the Middle Ages, it retained its strategic regional importance, changing hands between the Byzantine and Bulgarian Empires. It came under Ottoman rule in the 14th century. In 1878, Plovdiv was made the capital of the autonomous Ottoman region of Eastern Rumelia ; in 1885, it became part of Bulgaria with the unification of that region and the Principality of Bulgaria. Plovdiv is situated in the southern part of the Plovdiv Plain on the two banks of the Maritsa River. The city has historically developed on seven syenite hills, some of which are 250 m high. Because of these seven hills, Plovdiv is often referred to in Bulgaria as “The City of the Seven Hills”. There are many remains preserved from Antiquity such as the Ancient amphitheatre , Roman odeon, Roman Stadium , the archaeological complex Eirene and others. Plovdiv was given various names throughout its long history. It was originally a Thracian settlement by the name of Eumolpias. Philip II of Macedon conquered the area in 342-341 BC and renamed the city Philippoupolis Greek. , of which the later Thracian name for the city, Pulpu-deva , is a reconstructed translation. After the Romans took control of the area, the city was named Latin. Meaning the Three Hills. During the Middle Ages the city was known as Philippoupolis in Byzantine Greek and Paldin or Plavdiv in Old Bulgarian , variations of the town’s earlier Thracian name. The city was known as Philippopolis in Western Europe well into the early 20th century. The city was known as Filibe in Turkish during the Ottoman Empire. Plovdiv has settlement traces dating from the Neolithic, roughly 4000 BC. Archaeologists have discovered fine pottery and other objects of everyday life from as early as the Neolithic Age, showing that in the end of the 4. There already was an established settlement there. According to Ammianus Marcellinus , Plovdiv’s written post-Bronze Age history lists it as a Thracian fortified settlement named Eumolpias. In 4th century BC the city was a centre of a trade fair (called panegyreis). In 342 BC, it was conquered by Philip II of Macedon , the father of Alexander the Great , who renamed it , Philippopolis or “the city of Philip” in his own honour. Later, it was reconquered by the Thracians who called it Pulpudeva (a reconstructed translation of Philipopolis). In 72 AD it was seized by the Roman general Terentius Varo Lukulus and was incorporated into the Roman Empire , where it was called Trimontium (City of Three Hills) and served as metropolis (capital) of the province of Thrace. It gained a city status in late 1st century. Trimontium was an important crossroad for the Roman Empire and was called “The largest and most beautiful of all cities” by Lucian. Although it was not the capital of the Province of Thrace, the city was the largest and most important centre in the province. In those times, the Via Militaris (or Via Diagonalis), the most important military road in the Balkans , passed through the city. The Roman times were a period of growth and cultural excellence. The ancient ruins tell a story of a vibrant, growing city with numerous public buildings, shrines, baths, and theatres. The city had an advanced water system and sewerage. It was defended with a double wall. Many of those are still preserved and can be seen by tourists. Today only a small part of the ancient city has been excavated. Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (31 August 161 31 December 192) was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 180 to 192 (also with his father, Marcus Aurelius , from 177 until 180). The name given here was his official name at his accession to sole rule; see Changes of name for earlier and later forms. His accession as emperor was the first time a son had succeeded his father since Titus succeeded Vespasian in 79. Commodus was the first emperor ” born to the purple “; i. Born during his father’s reign. Commodus vies with Caligula and Nero as Roman history’s most perverse and sadistic of rulers. Like Caligula and Nero before, Commodus was an ordinary (by imperial standards) ruler who succeeded Marcus Aurelius, his father, upon his death. In his one major positive deed, Commodus called off the expedition against the Germans which his father had commenced on terms favorable to Rome. He sped off to Rome where he much preferred living the perks of an emperor to the dirty business of waging wars. While he whiled away his time pursuing a hedonistic lifestyle he was happy to delegate administrative responsibilities to others. Unfortunately, his appointees never seemed to last long on the job. Whether through incompetence, bad luck or corruption, one by one these fell and needed replacement. Commodus little by little began gaining a taste for power as the shuffling of his foremen took place and, finally, he decided to manage the empire himself. It is starting with this period that Commodus began to act increasingly unpredictably and cruel. A botched conspiracy against him, orchestrated by no less than his beloved sister Lucilla, was discovered and his surviving the episode turned him afterwards into a highly paranoid individual who had countless officials executed for disloyalty imagined or real. In his final year of life he shocked Romans of all classes by personally moonlighting as a gladiator. Of course, these fights were arranged so that he could invariably come out the victor. Because of this a record-breaking 700+ victories were scored in his name, each one ending in the deaths of one or more gladiators and/or wild beasts at the Colosseum. A successful conspiracy against him was finally hatched by one of his lovers who first tried poisoning him but he threw up and a wrestler was summoned who strangled him to death on the last day of the year 192. The recent Hollywood release “The Gladiator” is a fictionalized account of Commodus as emperor which has him at odds with a popular gladiator. The item “COMMODUS son of Marcus Philippopolis Aurelius Ancient Roman Coin EAGLE i22608″ is in sale since Tuesday, August 16, 2011. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Provincial (100-400 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.