CONSTANS Constantine the Great son 337AD Ancient Roman Coin Phoenix i44293
Item: i44293 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Constans – Roman Emperor : 337-350 A. Bronze AE3 18mm (2.96 grams) Siscia mint: 337-350 A. Reference: RIC 241 (VIII, Siscia), LRBC 1134 DNCONSTANSPFAVG – Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. FELTEMPREPARATIO Exe: SIS – Phoenix standing right on pile of ashes. In Greek mythology, a phoenix or phenix (Greek: phoinix) is a long-lived bird that is cyclically regenerated or reborn. Associated with the sun, a phoenix obtains new life by arising from the ashes of its predecessor. The phoenix was subsequently adopted as a symbol in Early Christianity. While the phoenix typically dies by fire in most versions of the legend, there are less popular versions of the myth in which the mythical bird dies and simply decomposes before being born again. According to some legends, the phoenix could live over 1400 years before rebirth. Herodotus, Lucan, Pliny the Elder, Pope Clement I, Lactantius, Ovid, and Isidore of Seville are among those who have contributed to the retelling and transmission of the phoenix motif. In the historical record, the phoenix “could symbolize renewal in general as well as the sun, time, the empire, metempsychosis, consecration, resurrection, life in the heavenly Paradise, Christ, Mary, virginity, the exceptional man, and certain aspects of Christian life”. The modern English noun phoenix derives from Middle English phenix (before 1150), itself from Old English fnix (around 750). Old English fnix was borrowed from Medieval Latin phenix , which is derived from Classical Latin phoenx. The Classical Latin phoenx represents Greek phoinx. In ancient Greece and Rome, the bird, , was sometimes associated with the similar-sounding Phoenicia, a region famous for its production of purple dye from conch shells. A late antique etymology offered by the 6th- and 7th-century CE archbishop Isidore of Seville accordingly derives the name of the phoenix from its allegedly purple-red hue. Because the costly purple dye from Phoenicia was associated with the upper classes in antiquity and, later, with royalty, in the medieval period the phoenix was considered “the royal bird”. In spite of these folk etymologies, with the deciphering of the Linear B script in the 20th century, the original Greek was decisively shown to be derived from Mycenaean Greek po-ni-ke , itself open to a variety of interpretations. Relation to the Egyptian benu. Classical discourse on the subject of the phoenix points to a potential origin of the phoenix in Ancient Egypt. In the 19th century scholastic suspicions appeared to be confirmed by the discovery that Egyptians in Heliopolis had venerated the benu, a solar bird observed in some respects to be similar to the Greek phoenix. However, the Egyptian sources regarding the benu are often problematic and open to a variety of interpretations. Some of these sources may have been influenced by Greek notions of the phoenix. The phoenix is sometimes pictured in ancient and medieval literature and medieval art as endowed with a nimbus, which emphasizes the bird’s connection with the sun. In the oldest images of phoenixes on record these nimbuses often have seven rays, like Helios (the personified sun of Greek mythology). Also describes the bird as having a crest of feathers on its head. And Ezekiel the Dramatist compared it to a rooster. Although the phoenix was generally believed to be colorful and vibrant, there is no clear consensus about its coloration. Tacitus claims that its color made it stand out from all other birds. Some thought that the bird had peacock-like coloring, and Herodotus’ claim of red and yellow is popular in many versions of the story on record. Ezekiel the Dramatist declared that the phoenix had red legs and striking yellow eyes. But Lactantius said that its eyes were blue like sapphires. And that its legs were covered in scales of yellow-gold with rose-colored talons. In terms of size, R. Van den Broek, Herodotus, Pliny, Solinus, and Philostratus describe the phoenix as similar in size to an eagle. But Lactantius and Ezekiel the Dramatist both claim that the phoenix was larger, with Lactantius declaring that it was even larger than an ostrich. Scholars have observed analogues to the phoenix in a variety of cultures. These analogues include the Arabic anqa, the Hindu garuda and gandaberunda, the Russian firebird, the Persian Simorgh, the Turkish Zümrüdü Anka, the Tibetan Me byi karmo, the Chinese fenghuang, and the Japanese h. Flavius Julius Constans Augustus. 323350 was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350. He defeated his brother Constantine II in 340, but anger in the army over his personal life and preference for his barbarian bodyguards led the general Magnentius to rebel, resulting in the assassination of Constans in 350. Constans was the third and youngest son of Constantine the Great and Fausta , his father’s second wife. He was educated at the court of his father at Constantinople under the tutelage of the poet Aemilius Magnus Arborius. On 25 December 333, Constantine I elevated Constans to the rank of Caesar at Constantinople. Constans became engaged to Olympias , the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius , but the marriage never came to pass. With Constantines death in 337, Constans and his two brothers, Constantine II and Constantius II , divided the Roman world between themselves and disposed of virtually all relatives who could possibly have a claim to the throne. The army proclaimed them Augusti on September 9, 337. Almost immediately, Constans was required to deal with a Sarmatian invasion in late 337, over whom he won a resounding victory. Division of the Roman Empire among the Caesars appointed by Constantine I : from left to right, the territories of Constantine II , Constans, Dalmatius and Constantius II. After the death of Constantine I (May 337), this was the formal division of the Empire, until Dalmatius was killed and his territory divided between Constans and Constantius. Constans was initially under the guardianship of Constantine II. The original settlement assigned Constans the praetorian prefectures of Italy and Africa. Constans was unhappy with this division, so the brothers met at Viminacium in 338 to revise the boundaries. Constans managed to extract the prefecture of Illyricum and the diocese of Thrace. Provinces that were originally to be ruled by his cousin Dalmatius , as per Constantine Is proposed division after his death. Constantine II soon complained that he had not received the amount of territory that was his due as the eldest son. Annoyed that Constans had received Thrace and Macedonia after the death of Dalmatius, Constantine demanded that Constans hand over the African provinces, which he agreed to do in order to maintain a fragile peace. Soon, however, they began quarreling over which parts of the African provinces belonged to Carthage , and thus Constantine, and which belonged to Italy , and therefore Constans. This led to growing tensions between the two brothers, which were only heightened by Constans finally coming of age and Constantine refusing to give up his guardianship. In 340 Constantine II invaded Italy. Constans, at that time in Dacia , detached and sent a select and disciplined body of his Illyrian troops, stating that he would follow them in person with the remainder of his forces. Constantine was eventually trapped at Aquileia , where he died, leaving Constans to inherit all of his brothers former territories Hispania , Britannia and Gaul. Constans began his reign in an energetic fashion. In 341-42, he led a successful campaign against the Franks , and in the early months of 343 he visited Britain. The source for this visit, Julius Firmicus Maternus , does not provide a reason, but the quick movement and the danger involved in crossing the channel in the dangerous winter months suggests it was in response to a military emergency, possibly to repel the Picts and Scots. Regarding religion, Constans was tolerant of Judaism but promulgated an edict banning pagan sacrifices in 341. He suppressed Donatism in Africa and supported Nicene orthodoxy against Arianism , which was championed by his brother Constantius. Although Constans called the Council of Sardica in 343 to settle the conflict. It was a complete failure. And by 346 the two emperors were on the point of open warfare over the dispute. The conflict was only resolved by an interim agreement which allowed each emperor to support their preferred clergy within their own spheres of influence. In the final years of his reign, Constans developed a reputation for cruelty and misrule. Dominated by favourites and openly preferring his select bodyguard, he lost the support of the legions who were also offended by his homosexuality. In 350, the general Magnentius declared himself emperor at Augustodunum with the support of the troops on the Rhine frontier, and later the western provinces of the Empire. Constans was enjoying himself nearby when he was notified of the elevation of Magnentius. Lacking any support beyond his immediate household, he was forced to flee for his life. As he was trying to reach either Italy or Spain, supporters of Magnentius cornered him in a fortification in Vicus Helena (now Elne) in the Pyrenees , southwestern Gaul , where he was killed after seeking sanctuary in a temple. The phoenix is a mythical sacred firebird that originated in Persian mythology , ancient Phoenician mythology (according to Sanchuniathon), Chinese mythology , Egyptian religion and later Greek mythology. A phoenix is a mythical bird that is a fire spirit with a colorful plumage and a tail of gold and scarlet (or purple, blue, and green according to some legends). It has a 500 to 1,000 year life-cycle, near the end of which it builds itself a nest of twigs that then ignites; both nest and bird burn fiercely and are reduced to ashes, from which a new, young phoenix or phoenix egg arises, reborn anew to live again. The new phoenix is destined to live as long as its old self. In some stories, the new phoenix embalms the ashes of its old self in an egg made of myrrh and deposits it in the Egyptian city of Heliopolis (Greek for sun-city). It is said that the bird’s cry is that of a beautiful song. In very few stories they are able to change into people. The Roman poet Ovid wrote the following about the phoenix. Most beings spring from other individuals; but there is a certain kind which reproduces itself. The Assyrians call it the Phoenix. It does not live on fruit or flowers, but on frankincense and odoriferous gums. When it has lived five hundred years, it builds itself a nest in the branches of an oak, or on the top of a palm tree. In this it collects cinnamon, and spikenard, and myrrh, and of these materials builds a pile on which it deposits itself, and dying, breathes out its last breath amidst odors. From the body of the parent bird, a young Phoenix issues forth, destined to live as long a life as its predecessor. When this has grown up and gained sufficient strength, it lifts its nest from the tree (its own cradle and its parent’s sepulchre), and carries it to the city of Heliopolis in Egypt, and deposits it in the temple of the Sun. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “CONSTANS Constantine the Great son 337AD Ancient Roman Coin Phoenix i44293″ is in sale since Sunday, November 9, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.