SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS sacrificing RARE Emesa mint Ancient Silver Roman Coin i39522
Item: i39522 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Septimius Severus – Roman Emperor : 193-211 A. Silver Denarius 18mm (3.11 grams) Emesa mint: 193-211 A. Reference: RIC 413; sear5 #6324; RSC 376. IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right PIETAT AVG, Septimius standing left, sacrificing from patera over altar. In the material culture of classical antiquity ,, a phiale or patera. Is a shallow ceramic or metal libation bowl. It often has a bulbous indentation (omphalos , “bellybutton”) in the center underside to facilitate holding it, in which case it is sometimes called a mesomphalic phiale. It typically has no handles, and no feet. A drinking cup with handles is a kylix. A circular platter with a pair of C-handles is not a patera, but a few paterae have a single long straight handle. Although the two terms may be used interchangeably, particularly in the context of Etruscan culture , phiale is more common in reference to Greek forms, and patera in a Roman setting. Silver phiale 620-590 BC, from Bayindir village, Elmali , present-day Turkey. Octopus and dolphin motifs on a ceramic phiale (510500 BC, from Eretria , Euboea). Golden phiale (4th3rd century BC). Silver patera from Hispania/font> (Roman Spain), 2nd1st century BC. AA youth pours a libation to the deceased within a naiskos , a scene that may also represent Ganymede serving Zeus (Apulian red-figure krater , 340320 BC). Libation was a central and vital aspect of ancient Greek religion , and one of the simplest and most common forms of religious practice. It is one of the basic religious acts that define piety in ancient Greece, dating back to the Bronze Age and even prehistoric Greece. Libations were a part of daily life, and the pious might perform them every day in the morning and evening, as well as to begin meals. A libation most often consisted of mixed wine and water, but could also be unmixed wine, honey, oil, water, or milk. The form of libation called spond is typically the ritualized pouring of wine from a jug or bowl held in the hand. The most common ritual was to pour the liquid from an oinocho (wine jug) into a phiale. Libation generally accompanied prayer. The Greeks stood when they prayed, either with their arms uplifted, or in the act of libation with the right arm extended to hold the phiale. After the wine offering was poured from the phiale, the remainder of the contents was drunk by the celebrant. In Roman art , the libation is shown performed at an altar, mensa (sacrificial meal table) , or tripod. It was the simplest form of sacrifice, and could be a sufficient offering by itself. The introductory rite (praefatio) to an animal sacrifice included an incense and wine libation onto a burning altar. Both emperors and divinities are frequently depicted, especially on coins, pouring libations from a patera. Scenes of libation and the patera itself commonly signify the quality of pietas/font> , religious duty or reverence. Libation at a symposium Attic red-figure cup, ca. Apollo pouring a libation Attic white-ground kylix , ca. Etruscan priest with phiale (2nd century BC). Roman priest, capite velato (2nd3rd century AD). A veil is an article of clothing or cloth hanging that is intended to cover some part of the head or face , or an object of some significance. It is especially associated with women and sacred objects. One view is that as a religious item, it is intended to show honor to an object or space. The actual sociocultural, psychological, and sociosexual functions of veils have not been studied extensively but most likely include the maintenance of social distance and the communication of social status and cultural identity. In Islamic society, various forms of the veil have been adopted from the Arab culture in which Islam arose. The Quran has no requirement that women cover their faces with a veil, or cover their bodies with the full-body burqua or chador. The first recorded instance of veiling for women is recorded in an Assyrian legal text from the 13th century BC, which restricted its use to noble women and forbade prostitutes and common women from adopting it. The Mycenaean Greek term a-pu-ko-wo-ko meaning “craftsman of horse veil” written in Linear B syllabic script is also attested since ca. In ancient Greek the word for veil was (kaluptra , Ionic Greek – kaluptr , from the verb – kalupt , “I cover”) and is first attested in the works of Homer. Classical Greek and Hellenistic statues sometimes depict Greek women with both their head and face covered by a veil. Caroline Galt and Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones have both argued from such representations and literary references that it was commonplace for women (at least those of higher status) in ancient Greece to cover their hair and face in public. For many centuries, until around 1175, Anglo-Saxon and then Anglo-Norman women, with the exception of young unmarried girls, wore veils that entirely covered their hair, and often their necks up to their chins (see wimple). Only in the Tudor period (1485), when hoods became increasingly popular, did veils of this type become less common. For centuries, women have worn sheer veils, but only under certain circumstances. Sometimes a veil of this type was draped over and pinned to the bonnet or hat of a woman in mourning , especially at the funeral and during the subsequent period of “high mourning”. They would also have been used, as an alternative to a mask , as a simple method of hiding the identity of a woman who was traveling to meet a lover, or doing anything she didn’t want other people to find out about. More pragmatically, veils were also sometimes worn to protect the complexion from sun and wind damage (when un-tanned skin was fashionable), or to keep dust out of a woman’s face, much as the keffiyeh is used today. In Judaism , Christianity and Islam the concept of covering the head is or was associated with propriety and modesty. Most traditional depictions of the Virgin Mary , the mother of Christ , show her veiled. During the Middle Ages most European and Byzantine married women covered their hair rather than their face, with a variety of styles of wimple , kerchiefs and headscarfs. Veiling, covering the hair rather than the face, was a common practice with church-going women until the 1960s, typically using lace , and a number of very traditional churches retain the custom. Lace face-veils are still often worn by female relatives at funerals. In North India, Hindu women may often veil for traditional purposes, it is often the custom in rural areas to veil in front of male elders. This veil is called the Ghoonghat or Laaj. This is to show humility and respect to those elder to the woman, in particular elder males. The ghoonghat is customary especially in the westerly states of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Although religion stands as a commonly held reason for choosing to veil, it has also reflects on political regimes and personal conviction, allowing it to serve as a medium through which personal character can be revealed. Praying Jewish woman wearing Tichel. After the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem , the synagogues that were established took the design of the Tabernacle as their plan. The Ark of the Law , which contains the scrolls of the Torah , is covered with an embroidered curtain or veil called a parokhet. See also below regarding the veiling and unveiling of the bride. The Veil of our Lady is a liturgical feast celebrating the protection afforded by the intercessions of the Virgin Mary. Traditionally, in Christianity, women were enjoined to cover their heads in church, just as it was (and still is) customary for men to remove their hat as a sign of respect. This practice is based on 1 Corinthians 11:416 , where St. Any man who prays or prophesies with his head covered brings shame upon his head. But any woman who prays or prophesies with her head unveiled brings shame upon her head, for it is one and the same thing as if she had had her head shaved. For if a woman does not have her head veiled, she may as well have her hair cut off. But if it is shameful for a woman to have her hair cut off or her head shaved, then she should wear a veil. A man, on the other hand, should not cover his head, because he is the image and glory of God, but woman is the glory of man. For man did not come from woman, but woman from man; nor was man created for woman, but woman for man; for this reason a woman should have a sign of authority on her head, because of the angels. Woman is not independent of man or man of woman in the Lord. For just as woman came from man, so man is born of woman; but all things are from God. Judge for yourselves: is it proper for a woman to pray to God with her head unveiled? Does not nature itself teach you that if a man wears his hair long it is a disgrace to him, whereas if a woman has long hair it is her glory, because long hair has been given (her) for a covering? But if anyone is inclined to be argumentative, we do not have such a custom, nor do the churches of God (New American Bible translation). In many traditional Eastern Orthodox Churches , and in some very conservative Protestant churches as well, the custom continues of women covering their heads in church (or even when praying privately at home). In the Roman Catholic Church , it was customary in most places before the 1960s for women to wear a headcovering in the form of a scarf, cap, veil or hat when entering a church. The practice now continues where it is seen as a matter of etiquette, courtesy, tradition or fashionable elegance rather than strictly of canon law. Traditionalist Catholics also maintain the practice. The wearing of a headcovering was for the first time mandated as a universal rule for the Latin Rite by the Code of Canon Law of 1917 , which code was abrogated by the advent of the present (1983) Code of Canon Law. Traditionalist Catholics majorly still follow it, generally as a matter of ancient custom and biblically approved aptness, some also supposing St. Paul’s directive in full force today as an ordinance of its own right, without a canon law rule enforcing it. The photograph here of Mass in the Netherlands in about 1946, two decades before the changes that followed the Second Vatican Council , shows that, even at that time, when a hat was still considered part of formal dress for both women and men, wearing a headcovering at Mass was not a universal practice for Catholic women. A veil over the hair rather than the face forms part of the headdress of some religiouss of nuns or religious sisters; this is why a woman who becomes a nun is said “to take the veil”. In medieval times married women normally covered their hair outside the house, and nun’s veils are based on secular medieval styles, reflecting nuns position as “brides of Christ”. In many institutes, a white veil is used as the “veil of probation” during novitiate , and a dark veil for the “veil of profession” once religious vows are taken the color scheme varies with the color scheme of the habit of the order. A veil of consecration , longer and fuller, is used by some orders for final profession of solemn vows. Nuns also wear veils. Nuns are the female counterparts of monks , and many monastic orders of women have retained the veil. Regarding other institutes of religious sisters who are not cloistered but who work as teachers, nurses or in other “active” apostolates outside of a nunnery or monastery, some wear the veil, while some others have abolished the use of the veil, a few never had a veil to start with, but used a bonnet-style headdress even a century ago, as in the case of St. The fullest versions of the nun’s veil cover the top of the head and flow down around and over the shoulders. In Western Christianity, it does not wrap around the neck or face. In those orders that retain one, the starched white covering about the face neck and shoulders is known as a wimple and is a separate garment. The Catholic Church has revived the ancient practice of allowing women to profess a solemn vow as consecrated virgins. These women are set aside as sacred persons who belong only to Christ and the service of the church. They are under the direct care of the local bishop , without belonging to a particular order and receive the veil as a sign of consecration. There has also been renewed interest in the last half century in the ancient practice of women and men dedicating themselves as anchorites or hermits , and there is a formal process whereby such persons can seek recognition of their vows by the local bishop a veil for these women would also be traditional. Some Anglican women’s religious orders also wear a veil, differing according to the traditions of each order. In Eastern Orthodoxy and in the Eastern Rites of the Catholic Church, a veil called an epanokamelavkion is used by both nuns and monks, in both cases covering completely the kamilavkion , a cylindrical hat they both wear. In Slavic practice, when the veil is worn over the hat, the entire headdress is referred to as a klobuk. Nuns wear an additional veil under the klobuk , called an apostolnik , which is drawn together to cover the neck and shoulders as well as their heads, leaving the face itself open. A variety of headdresses worn by Muslim women and girls in accordance with hijab (the principle of dressing modestly) are sometimes referred to as veils. The principal aim of the Muslim veil is to hide that which men find sexually attractive. Many of these garments cover the hair, ears and throat, but do not cover the face. The khimar is a type of headscarf. The niqb and burqa are two kinds of veils that cover most of the face except for a slit or hole for the eyes. The Afghan burqa covers the entire body, obscuring the face completely, except for a grille or netting over the eyes to allow the wearer to see. The boshiya is a veil that may be worn over a headscarf; it covers the entire face and is made of a sheer fabric so the wearer is able to see through it. It has been suggested that the practice of wearing a veil uncommon among the Arab tribes prior to the rise of Islam originated in the Byzantine Empire , and then spread. The wearing of head and especially face coverings by Muslim women has raised political issues in the West; see for example Hijab controversy in Quebec , Islamic dress controversy in Europe , Islamic scarf controversy in France , and United Kingdom debate over veils. There is also high debate of the veil in Turkey , a Muslim majority country but secular, which banned the headscarves in universities and government buildings, due to the türban (a Turkish styled headscarf) being viewed as a political symbol of Islam , see Headscarf controversy in Turkey. Frances Perkins wearing a veil after the death of U. Veils pinned to hats have survived the changing fashions of the centuries and are still common today on formal occasions that require women to wear a hat. However, these veils are generally made of netting or another material not actually designed to hide the face from view, even if the veil can be pulled down. An occasion on which a Western woman is likely to wear a veil is on her white wedding day. Brides once used to wear their hair flowing down their back at their wedding to symbolise their virginity. Veils covering the hair and face became a symbolic reference to the virginity of the bride thereafter. Often in modern weddings, the ceremony of removing a face veil after the wedding to present the groom with a virgin bride is skipped, since many couples have already entered into conjugal relations prior to their wedding day the bride either wears no face veil, or it is lifted before the ceremony begins, but this is not always the case. Further, if a bride is a virgin, she often wears the face veil through the ceremony, and then either her father lifts the veil, presenting the bride to her groom, or the groom lifts the veil to symbolically consummate the marriage, which will later become literal. Brides who are virgins may make use of the veil to symbolize and emphasize their status of purity during their wedding however, and if they do, the lifting of the veil may be ceremonially recognized as the crowning event of the wedding, when the beauty of the bride is finally revealed to the groom and the guests. It is not altogether clear that the wedding veil is a non-religious use of this item, since weddings have almost always had religious underpinnings, especially in the West. Veils, however, had been used in the West for weddings long before this. Roman brides, for instance, wore an intensely flame-colored and fulsome veil, called the flammeum , apparently intended to protect the bride from evil spirits on her wedding day. Later, the so-called velatio virginum became part of the rite of the consecration of virgins , the liturgical rite in which the church sets aside the virgin as a sacred person who belongs only to Christ. In the 19th century, wedding veils came to symbolize the woman’s virginity and modesty. The tradition of a veiled bride’s face continues even today wherein, a virgin bride, especially in Christian or Jewish culture, enters the marriage ritual with a veiled face and head, and remains fully veiled, both head and face, until the ceremony concludes. After the full conclusion of the wedding ceremony, either the bride’s father lifts the veil giving the bride to the groom who then kisses her, or the new groom lifts her face veil in order to kiss her, which symbolizes the groom’s right to enter into conjugal relations with his bride. The lifting of the veil was often a part of ancient wedding ritual, symbolizing the groom taking possession of the wife, either as lover or as property, or the revelation of the bride by her parents to the groom for his approval. A bride wearing a typical wedding veil. In Judaism, the tradition of wearing a veil dates back to biblical times. According to the Torah in Genesis 24:65 , Isaac is brought Rebekah to marry by his father Abraham’s servant. It is important to note that Rebekah did not veil herself when traveling with her lady attendants and Abraham’s servant and his men to meet Isaac, but she only did so when Isaac was approaching. Just before the wedding ceremony the badeken or bedeken is held. The groom places the veil over the bride’s face, and either he or the officiating Rabbi gives her a blessing. The veil stays on her face until just before the end of the wedding ceremony when they are legally married according to Jewish law then the groom helps lift the veil from off her face. The most often cited interpretation for the badeken is that, according to Genesis 29 , when Jacob went to marry Rachel, his father in law Laban tricked him into marrying Leah, Rachel’s older and homlier sister. Many say that the veiling ceremony takes place to make sure that the groom is marrying the right bride. Some say that as the groom places the veil over his bride, he makes an implicit promise to clothe and protect her. Finally, by covering her face, the groom recognizes that he his marrying the bride for her inner beauty; while looks will fade with time, his love will be everlasting. In some ultra-orthodox traditions the bride wears an opaque veil as she is escorted down the aisle to meet her groom. This shows her complete willingness to enter into the marriage and her absolute trust that she is marrying the right man. In Judaism, a wedding is not considered valid unless the bride willingly consents to it. In ancient Judaism the lifting of the veil took place just prior to the consummation of the marriage in sexual union. The uncovering or unveiling that takes place in the wedding ceremony is a symbol of what will take place in the marriage bed. Just as the two become one through their words spoken in wedding vows, so these words are a sign of the physical oneness that they will consummate later on. The lifting of the veil is a symbol and an anticipation of this. In the Western world , St. Paul’s words concerning how marriage symbolizes the union of Christ and His Church may underlie part of the tradition of veiling in the marriage ceremony. Veils are part of the stereotypical images of courtesans and harem women. Here, the mysterious veil hints at sensuality, an example being the dance of the seven veils. This is the context into which belly dancing veils fall, with a large repertoire of ways to wear and hold the veil, framing the body and accentuating movements. Dancing veils can be as small as a scarf or two, silk veils mounted on fans, a half circle, three-quarter circle, full circle, a rectangle up to four feet long, and as large as huge Isis wings with sticks for extensions. There is also a giant canopy type veil used by a group of dancers. Veils are made of rayon, silk, polyester, mylar and other fabrics (never wool, though). Rarely used in Egyptian cabaret style, veil dancing has always played an important part in the international world of belly dance, extending the range of the dance and offering lovely transitory imagery. Conversely, veils are often part of the stereotypical image of the courtesan and harem woman. Here, rather than the virginity of the bride’s veil, modesty of the Muslim scarf or the piety of the nun’s headdress, the mysterious veil hints at sensuality and the unknown. An example of the veil’s erotic potential is the dance of the seven veils. In this context, the term may refer to a piece of sheer cloth approximately 3 x 1.5 metres, sometimes trimmed with sequins or coins, which is used in various styles of belly dancing. A large repertoire of ways to wear and hold the veil exists, many of which are intended to frame the body from the perspective of the audience. Among the Tuareg , Songhai , Moors , Hausa. And Fulani of West Africa , women do not traditionally wear the veil, while men do. The men’s facial covering originates from the belief that such action wards off evil spirits, but most probably relates to protection against the harsh desert sands as well; in any event, it is a firmly established tradition. Men begin wearing a veil at age 25 which conceals their entire face excluding their eyes. This veil is never removed, even in front of family members. In India , Pakistan , Bangladesh , and Nepal , men wear a sehra on their wedding day. This is a male veil covering the whole face and neck. The sehra is made from either flowers, beads, tinsel, dry leaves, or coconuts. The most common sehra is made from fresh marigolds. The groom wears this throughout the day concealing his face even during the wedding ceremony. In India today you can see the groom arriving on a horse with the sehra wrapped around his head. “Veil” came from Latin vlum , which also means ” sail “. There are two theories about the origin of the word vlum. Via the “covering” meaning, from (Indo-European root) wel – = “to cover, to enclose”. L/b> ucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) (April 11, 145/146-February 4, 211) was a Roman general, and Roman Emperor from April 14, 193 to 211. He was born in what is now the Berber part of Rome’s historic Africa Province. Septimius Severus was born and raised at Leptis Magna (modern Berber , southeast of Carthage , modern Tunisia). Severus came from a wealthy, distinguished family of equestrian rank. Severus was of Italian Roman ancestry on his mother’s side and of Punic or Libyan -Punic ancestry on his father’s. Little is known of his father, Publius Septimius Geta , who held no major political status but had two cousins who served as consuls under emperor Antoninus Pius. His mother, Fulvia Pia’s family moved from Italy to North Africa and was of the Fulvius gens, an ancient and politically influential clan, which was originally of plebeian status. His siblings were a younger Publius Septimius Geta and Septimia Octavilla. Severuss maternal cousin was Praetorian Guard Gaius Fulvius Plautianus. In 172, Severus was made a Senator by the then emperor Marcus Aurelius. In 187 he married secondly Julia omna. In 190 Severus became consul , and in the following year received from the emperor Commodus (successor to Marcus Aurelius) the command of the legions in Pannonia. On the murder of Pertinax by the troops in 193, they proclaimed Severus Emperor at Carnuntum , whereupon he hurried to Italy. The former emperor, Didius Julianus , was condemned to death by the Senate and killed, and Severus took possession of Rome without opposition. At the same time, Severus felt it was reasonable to offer Clodius Albinus , the powerful governor of Britannia who had probably supported Didius against him, the rank of Caesar, which implied some claim to succession. With his rearguard safe, he moved to the East and crushed Niger’s forces at the Battle of Issus. The following year was devoted to suppressing Mesopotamia and other Parthian vassals who had backed Niger. When afterwards Severus declared openly his son Caracalla as successor, Albinus was hailed emperor by his troops and moved to Gallia. Severus, after a short stay in Rome, moved northwards to meet him. In the Battle of Lugdunum , with an army of 100,000 men, mostly composed of Illyrian , Moesian and Dacian legions, Severus defeated and killed Clodius Albinus, securing his full control over the Empire. Severus was at heart a soldier , and sought glory through military exploits. In 197 he waged a brief and successful war against the Parthian Empire in retaliation for the support given to Pescennius Niger. The Parthian capital Ctesiphon was sacked by the legions, and the northern half of Mesopotamia was restored to Rome. His relations with the Roman Senate were never good. Severus ordered the execution of dozens of Senators on charges of corruption and conspiracy against him, replacing them with his own favorites. He also disbanded the Praetorian Guard and replaced it with one of his own, made up of 50,000 loyal soldiers mainly camped at Albanum , near Rome (also probably to grant the emperor a kind of centralized reserve). During his reign the number of legions was also increased from 25/30 to 33. He also increased the number of auxiliary corps (numerii), many of these troops coming from the Eastern borders. Additionally the annual wage for a soldier was raised from 300 to 500 denarii. Although his actions turned Rome into a military dictatorship , he was popular with the citizens of Rome, having stamped out the rampant corruption of Commodus’s reign. According to Cassius Dio, however, after 197 Severus fell heavily under the influence of his Praetorian Prefect, Gaius Fulvius Plautianus , who came to have almost total control of most branches of the imperial administration. Plautianus’s daughter, Fulvia Plautilla , was married to Severus’s son, Caracalla. Plautianuss excessive power came to an end in 205, when he was denounced by the Emperor’s dying brother and killed. The two following praefecti , including the jurist Aemilius Papinianus , received however even larger powers. Campaigns in Caledonia (Scotland). Starting from 208 Severus undertook a number of military actions in Roman Britain , reconstructing Hadrian’s Wall and campaigning in Scotland. He reached the area of the Moray Firth in his last campaign in Caledonia, as was called Scotland by the Romans.. In 210 obtained a peace with the Picts that lasted practically until the final withdrawal of the Roman legions from Britain, before falling severely ill in Eboracum (York). He is famously said to have given the advice to his sons: “Be harmonious, enrich the soldiers, and scorn all other men” before he died at Eboracum on. Upon his death in 211, Severus was deified by the Senate and succeeded by his sons, Caracalla and Geta , who were advised by his wife Julia Domna. The stability Severus provided the Empire was soon gone under their reign. Though his military expenditure was costly to the empire, Severus was the strong, able ruler that Rome needed at the time. He began a tradition of effective emperors elevated solely by the military. Severus was also distinguished for his buildings. Apart from the triumphal arch in the Roman Forum carrying his full name, he also built the Septizodium in Rome and enriched greatly his native city of Leptis Magna (including another triumphal arch on the occasion of his visit of 203). Christians were persecuted during the reign of Septimus Severus. Severus allowed the enforcement of policies already long-established, which meant that Roman authorities did not intentionally seek out Christians, but when people were accused of being Christians they could either curse Jesus and make an offering to Roman gods , or be executed. Furthermore, wishing to strengthen the peace by encouraging religious harmony through syncretism , Severus tried to limit the spread of the two quarrelsome groups who refused to yield to syncretism by outlawing conversion to Christianity or Judaism. Individual officials availed themselves of the laws to proceed with rigor against the Christians. Naturally the emperor, with his strict conception of law, did not hinder such partial persecution, which took place in Egypt and the Thebaid , as well as in Africa proconsularis and the East. Christian martyrs were numerous in Alexandria cf. Clement of Alexandria , Stromata , ii. 20; Eusebius , Church History , V. No less severe were the persecutions in Africa, which seem to have begun in 197 or 198 cf. Tertullian’s Ad martyres , and included the Christians known in the Roman martyrology as the martyrs of Madaura. Probably in 202 or 203 Felicitas and Perpetua suffered for their faith. Persecution again raged for a short time under the proconsul Scapula in 211, especially in Numidia and Mauritania. Later accounts of a Gallic persecution, especially at Lyon , are legendary. In general it may thus be said that the position of the Christians under Septimius Severus was the same as under the Antonines ; but the law of this Emperor at least shows clearly that the rescript of Trajan had failed to execute its purpose. 16 January 27 BC to 19 August AD 14. 19 August 14 to 16 March 37. 18 March 37 to 24 January 41. Murdered by Praetorian Guard. 24 January 41 to 13 October 54. Poisoned by his wife Agrippina, mother of Nero. 13 October 54 to 11 June 68. Made a slave kill him. Year of the Four Emperors. 8 June 68 to 15 January 69. Murdered in favour of. 15 January 69 to 16 April 69. 2 January 69 to 20 December 69. 1 July 69 to 24 June 79. 24 June 79 to 13 September 81. Possibly assassinated by Domitian. 14 September 81 to 18 September 96. 18 September 96 to 27 January 98. Proclaimed emperor by senate. 28 January 98 to 7 August 117. 11 August 117 to 10 July 138. 10 July 138 to 7 March 161. 7 March 161 to 17 March 180. 7 March 161 to March 169. Usurper; ruled in Egypt and Syria; murdered by his own army. 177 to 31 December 192. Year of the Five Emperors. 1 January 193 to 28 March 193. Proclaimed emperor by senate; murdered by Praetorian Guard. 28 March 193 to 1 June 193. Proclaimed emperor by Praetorian Guard; executed on orders of the Senate. 9 April 193 to 4 February 211. Troops; accepted by senate. Proclaimed emperor by Syrian troops, defeated in battle by. Proclaimed emperor by British troops, defeated in battle by. 198 to 8 April 217. Assassinated at the behest of. 209 to 4 February 211. Assassinated on orders of. 11 April 217 to June 218. Proclaimed himself emperor; executed on orders of. May 217 to June 218. June 218 to 222. Proclaimed emperor by army; murdered by his own troops. 13 March 222 to? Murdered by his own troops. Crisis of the Third Century. February/March 235 to March/April 238. Proclaimed emperor by the army; murdered by. January/March 238 to late January/April 238. Proclaimed emperor in Africa; committed suicide after. January March 238 to late January/April 238. February 238 to early May 238. Proclaimed joint emperor by senate; murdered by. May 238 to February 244. Death unclear, probably murdered. Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor; defeated in battle. February 244 to September/October 249. Proclaimed emperor after death of. Killed in battle by. Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor; murdered by his own soldiers. Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor in the east; murdered by his own soldiers. Usurper; details essentially unknown. 249 to June 251. Proclaimed himself emperor in the east in opposition to. Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Rome; rebellion suppressed. 251 to June 251. June 251 to August 253. Proclaimed emperor by his troops after Decius’s death; murdered by them in favour of Aemilianus. July 251 to August 253. August 253 to October 253. Proclaimed emperor by his troops; murdered by them in favour of. 253 to June 260. Proclaimed emperor by his troops; captured in battle by the. 253 to September 268. To 260; probably murdered by his generals. Proclaimed emperor by army; murdered shortly after by troops of. June 260 (or 258). Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor after. S capture; defeated in battle. Usurper; proclaimed emperor after. S defeat; fate unclear. Usurper; proclaimed emperor by eastern army; defeated and killed in battle. Defeated and killed in battle. 261 to 261 or 262. Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor after the defeat of the Macriani; defeated and executed. S death; surrendered to. 268 to August 270. Proclaimed emperor by the army. August 270 to September 270. Proclaimed himself emperor; cause of death unclear. August 270 to 275. Proclaimed emperor by army; murdered by the. Usurper; proclaimed emperor in. Killed by his own soldiers. November/December 275 to July 276. Appointed emperor by the Senate; possibly assassinated. July 276 to September 276. Proclaimed emperor by the western army; murdered by his troops. July 276 to late September 282. Proclaimed emperor by the eastern army; murdered by his own soldiers in favour of. Usurper; proclaimed emperor by his troops; then killed by them. Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor at the request of the people of. Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor; defeated by. September 282 to July/August 283. Proclaimed emperor by Praetorian guard. Spring 283 to summer 285. Son of Carus; co-emperor with. July/August 283 to November 284. Declared himself emperor after. S death; killed by his own troops. Proclaimed himself emperor in opposition to Postumus; defeated and killed by Postumus. Proclaimed himself emperor after Postumus’s death. Proclaimed emperor after Marius’s death. Proclaimed himself emperor of the. Nominated heir to Victorinus. Declared himself emperor; assassinated by. S death; defeated by. 20 November 284 to 1 May 305. Declared emperor by the army after Numerian’s death; Abdicated. 1 April 286 to 1 May 305. Made co-emperor (‘Augustus’) with. 1 May 305 to 25 July 306. Made junior co-emperor (‘Caesar’) under. Became Augustus after his abdication. 1 May 305 to May 311. August 306 to 16 September 307. Became Augustus after his death; executed by. 28 October 306 to 28 October 312. Defeated in battle by. 307, de facto 312 to 22 May 337. Proclaimed Augustus by army. Proclaimed emperor in Africa; defeated in battle by. 11 November 308 to 18 September 324. 1 May 311 to July/August 313. Became Augustus after his death; defeated in battle by Licinius and committed suicide. December 316 to 1 March 317. July to 18 September 324. Co-emperor with his brothers; killed in battle. Co-emperor with his brothers. Co-emperor with his brothers, killed by. January 350 to 11 August 353. Usurper; proclaimed emperor by the army; defeated by. Proclaimed himself emperor against. Defeated and executed by. November 361 to June 363. Made Caesar by Constantius, then proclaimed Augustus by the army; killed in battle. 363 to 17 February 364. Proclaimed emperor by the army after. 26 February 364 to 17 November 375. 28 March 365 to 9 August 378. Made co-emperor in the east by his brother. September 365 to 27 May 366. Usurper; Proclaimed himself emperor; defeated and executed by. 24 August 367 to 383. And died in suspicious circumstances. Usurper; proclaimed emperor by troops; at one time recognized by. But then deposed and executed. Son of Magnus Maximus, executed on orders of. Usurper; proclaimed emperor by army under. 379 to 17 January 395. Made co-emperor for the east by. 383 to 408 EAST. Appointed co-emperor with his father. Sole emperor for the east from January 395. 23 January 393 to 15 August 423 WEST. Appointed Augustus for the west by his father. 407 to 411 WEST. Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Britain; defeated by. 409 to 411 WEST. Usurper; made emperor by his father. 409 and 414 to 415 WEST. Usurper; twice proclaimed emperor by. And twice deposed by. Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Spain; abdicated. 411 to 413 WEST. S death, executed by. 412 to 413 WEST. Usurper; appointed co-emperor by. 408 to 450 EAST. 421 to 421 WEST. 423 to 425 WEST. Proclaimed western emperor, initially undisputed; defeated and executed by. 425 to 16 March 455 WEST. 17 March 455 to 31 May 455. Proclaimed himself emperor after. June 455 to 17 October 456. Proclaimed emperor by the. 457 to 2 August 461. Deposed and executed by. 12 April 467 to 11 July 472. July 472 to 2 November 472. 5 March 473 to June 474. June 474 to 25 April 480. Appointed by eastern emperor. Deposed in Italy by. In 475; continued to be recognised as lawful emperor in Gaul and Dalmatia until his murder in 480. 31 October 475 to 4 September 476. Barbarian kings of Italy. For the rulers of the Eastern Roman Empire also known as the. List of Byzantine Emperors. See also: Theodosian dynasty. Theodosius I “the Great” (‘ , Flavius Theodosius)Theodosius I Coins. 19 January 379 17 January 395. Born on 11 January 347. Aristocrat and military leader, brother-in-law of Gratian, who appointed him as emperor of the East. From 392 until his death sole Roman emperor. Arcadius (, Flavius Arcadius)Arcadius Coins. 17 January 395 1 May 408. Born in 377/378, the eldest son of Theodosius I. Succeeded upon the death of his father. Theodosius II (‘, Flavius Theodosius) Theodosius II Coins. 1 May 408 28 July 450. Born on 10 April 401, the only son of Arcadius. As a minor, the praetorian prefect Anthemius was regent in 408414. He died in a riding accident. Marcian (, Flavius Valerius Marcianus). A soldier and politician, he became emperor after being wed by the Augusta Pulcheria , Theodosius II’s sister, following the latter’s death. See also: House of Leo. Leo I “the Thracian” (‘ , Flavius Valerius Leo). 7 February 457 18 January 474. Born in Dacia in 401. A common soldier, he was chosen by Aspar , commander-in-chief of the army. Leo II (‘, Flavius Leo). 18 January 17 November 474. Born in 467, the grandson of Leo I. Succeeded upon the death of Leo I. Died of an unknown disease, possibly poisoned. 17 November 474 9 April 491. 425 at Zenonopolis , Isauria , originally named Tarasicodissa. Son-in-law of Leo I, he was bypassed in the succession because of his barbarian origin. Named co-emperor by his son on 9 February 474, he succeeded upon the death of Leo II. Deposed by Basiliscus, brother-in-law of Leo, he fled to his native country and regained the throne in August 476. 9 January 475 August 476. General and brother-in-law of Leo I, he seized power from Zeno but was again deposed by him. Anastasius I (‘, Flavius Anastasius). BYZANTINE – Anastasius Coins. 11 April 491 9 July 518. 430 at Dyrrhachium , Epirus nova. A palace official (silentiarius) and son-in-law of Leo I, he was chosen as emperor by empress-dowager Ariadne. Main article: Justinian Dynasty. July 9, 518 AD August 1, 527 AD. Commander of the palace guard under Anastasius I ; elected as emperor with support of army. August 1, 527 AD Natural causes. FLAVIVS PETRVS SABBATIVS IVSTINIANVS AVGVSTVS. 482 AD, Tauresium , Dardania. August 1, 527 AD 13/14 November 565 AD. Nephew and nominated heir of Justin I. 13/14 November 565 AD Natural causes. FLAVIVS IVSTINIVS IVNIOR AVGVSTVS. 13/14 November 565 AD 578 AD. Nephew of Justinian I. 578 AD Became insane; Tiberius II Constantine ruled as regent from December 574 and became emperor on Justin’s death in 578. Roman Late Monogram Coins. List of Roman usurpers. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS sacrificing RARE Emesa mint Ancient Silver Roman Coin i39522″ is in sale since Sunday, April 20, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
- Ruler: Septimius Severus
- Composition: Silver