TYRE in PHOENICIA Roman Emperor Hadrian Time 131AD Ancient Greek Coin i57575
Item: i57575 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Greek city of Tyre in Phoenicia, Pseudo-autonomous, time of Roman Emperor Hadrian Bronze 16mm (3.17 grams) Struck year 247 of the City Era, = 131/132 A. Reference: SNG Copenhagen 351 Turreted, veiled and draped bust of Tyche right, palm branch over shoulder. Palm tree; across field, date ZM. In the centuries following the Macedonian conquest, Tyre was subject first to the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, then at the end of the 3rd century, to the Seleucids of Syria. In 126/5 the city regained its autonomy and commenced a remarkable issue of silver and bronze coins extending well into the Roman Imperial period. The famous silver tetradrachms (‘shekels’) of this series have achieved notoriety as the most likely coinage with which Judas was paid his’thirty pieces of silver’ for the betrayal of Christ. Tyche (Greek for luck; the Roman equivalent was Fortuna) was the presiding tutelary deity that governed the fortune and prosperity of a city, its destiny. Increasingly during the Hellenistic period, cities had their own specific iconic version of Tyche, wearing a mural crown (a crown like the walls of the city). The Greek historian Polybius believed that when no cause can be discovered to events such as floods, droughts, frosts or even in politics, then the cause of these events may be fairly attributed to Tyche. Stylianos Spyridakis concisely expressed Tyche’s appeal in a Hellenistic world of arbitrary violence and unmeaning reverses: In the turbulent years of the Epigoni of Alexander , an awareness of the instability of human affairs led people to believe that Tyche, the blind mistress of Fortune, governed mankind with an inconstancy which explained the vicissitudes of the time. In literature, she might be given various genealogies, as a daughter of Hermes and Aphrodite , or considered as one of the Oceanids , daughters of Oceanus and Tethys , or of Zeus. She was connected with Nemesis and Agathos Daimon (“good spirit”). She was uniquely venerated at Itanos in Crete, as Tyche Protogeneia , linked with the Athenian Protogeneia (“firstborn”), daughter of Erechtheus , whose self-sacrifice saved the city. She had temples at Caesarea Maritima , Antioch , Alexandria and Constantinople. In Alexandria the Tychaeon , the temple of Tyche, was described by Libanius as one of the most magnificent of the entire Hellenistic world. Tyche appears on many coins of the Hellenistic period in the three centuries before the Christian era, especially from cities in the Aegean. Unpredictable turns of fortune drive the complicated plotlines of Hellenistic romances , such as Leucippe and Clitophon or Daphnis and Chloe. She experienced a resurgence in another era of uneasy change, the final days of publicly sanctioned Paganism , between the late-fourth-century emperors Julian and Theodosius I who definitively closed the temples. The effectiveness of her capricious power even achieved respectability in philosophical circles during that generation, though among poets it was a commonplace to revile her for a fickle harlot. The constellation of Virgo is sometimes identified as the heavenly figure of Tyche, as well as other goddesses such as Demeter and Astraea. Tyre was founded around 2750 BC according to Herodotus and it appears on monuments as early as 1300 BC. Philo of Byblos (in Eusebius) quotes the antiquarian authority Sanchuniathon as stating that it was first occupied by one Hypsuranius. Sanchuniathon’s work is said to be dedicated to “Abibalus king of Berytus” — possibly the Abibaal who was king of Tyre. There are ten Amarna letters dated 1350 BC from the mayor, Abi-Milku , written to Akenaten. The subject is often water, wood, and the Habiru overtaking the countryside, of the mainland, and how it affected the island-city. The commerce of the ancient world was gathered into the warehouses of Tyre. “Tyrian merchants were the first who ventured to navigate the Mediterranean waters; and they founded their colonies on the coasts and neighbouring islands of the Aegean Sea , in Greece , on the northern coast of Africa , at Carthage and other places, in Sicily and Corsica , in Spain at Tartessus , and even beyond the pillars of Hercules at Gadeira (Cádiz)” In the time of King David c. 1000 BC, a friendly alliance was entered into between the Kingdoms of Israel and Tyre, which was ruled by Hiram I. The city of Tyre was particularly known for the production of a rare and extraordinarily expensive sort of purple dye , produced from the murex shellfish, known as Tyrian purple. This color was, in many cultures of ancient times, reserved for the use of royalty, or at least nobility. It was often attacked by Egypt, besieged by Shalmaneser V , who was assisted by the Phoenicians of the mainland, for five years, and by Nebuchadnezzar (586 573 BC) for thirteen years, without success, although a compromise peace was made in which Tyre paid tribute to the Babylonians. It later fell under the power of the Persians. In 332 BC , the city was conquered by Alexander the Great , after a siege of seven months in which he built the causeway from the mainland to the island, but it continued to maintain much of its commercial importance until the Christian era. The presence of the causeway affected water currents nearby, causing sediment to build up, making the connection permanent. In 315 BC , Alexander’s former general Antigonus began his own siege of Tyre, taking the city a year later. In 126 BC , Tyre regained its independence (from the Seleucids) and was allowed to keep much of its independence when the area became a Roman province in 64 BC. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “TYRE in PHOENICIA Roman Emperor Hadrian Time 131AD Ancient Greek Coin i57575″ is in sale since Sunday, September 4, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Greek (450 BC-100 AD)”. 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