GALLIENUS son of Valerian I 265AD Ancient Roman Coin Cult Mars w branch i34097
Item: i34097 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Gallienus – Roman Emperor: 253-268 A. Joint Rule with Valerian I 253-260 A. Bronze Antoninianus 20mm (2.65 grams) Rome mint circa 265-267 A. Reference: RIC 236k, C 617a GALLIENVSAVG – Radiate head right. MARTIPACIFERO – Mars standing left, holding branch and spear with shield. H in left field. Numismatic note; Mars with branch is peace-bringing. Ares is the Greek god of war. He is one of the Twelve Olympians , and the son of Zeus and Hera. In Greek literature , he often represents the physical or violent aspect of war, in contrast to the armored Athena , whose functions as a goddess of intelligence include military strategy and generalship. The Greeks were ambivalent toward Ares: although he embodied the physical valor necessary for success in war, he was a dangerous force, overwhelming, insatiable in battle, destructive, and man-slaughtering. Fear (Phobos) and Terror (Deimos) were yoked to his battle chariot. In the Iliad his father Zeus tells him that he is the god most hateful to him. An association with Ares endows places and objects with a savage, dangerous, or militarized quality. His value as a war god is even placed in doubt: during the Trojan War , Ares was on the losing side, while Athena, often depicted in Greek art as holding Nike (Victory) in her hand, favored the triumphant Greeks. Ares plays a relatively limited role in Greek mythology as represented in literary narratives, though his numerous love affairs and abundant offspring are often alluded to. When Ares does appear in myths, he typically faces humiliation. He is well known as the lover of Aphrodite , the goddess of love who was married to Hephaestus , god of craftsmanship, but the most famous story involving the couple shows them exposed to ridicule through the wronged husband’s clever device. The counterpart of Ares among the Roman gods is Mars , who as a father of the Roman people held a more important and dignified place in ancient Roman religion for his agricultural and tutelary functions. During the Hellenization of Latin literature , the myths of Ares were reinterpreted by Roman writers under the name of Mars. Greek writers under Roman rule also recorded cult practices and beliefs pertaining to Mars under the name of Ares. Thus in the classical tradition of later Western art and literature , the mythology of the two figures becomes virtually indistinguishable. The etymology of the name Ares is traditionally connected with the Greek word (ar), the Ionic form of the Doric (ara), “bane, ruin, curse, imprecation”. There may also be a connection with the Roman god of war Mars , via hypothetical Proto-Indo-European Mrs ;compare Ancient Greek (marnamai), “to fight, to battle”, or Punjabi maarna (to kill, to hit). The earliest attested form of the name is the Mycenaean Greek a-re , written in Linear B syllabic script. Walter Burkert notes that Ares is apparently an ancient abstract noun meaning throng of battle, war. The adjectival epithet Areios was frequently appended to the names of other gods when they take on a warrior aspect or become involved in warfare: Zeus Areios , Athena Areia , even Aphrodite Areia. In the Iliad , the word ares is used as a common noun synonymous with battle. Inscriptions as early as Mycenaean times, and continuing into the Classical period , attest to Enyalios , another name for the god of war. Then looking at him darkly Zeus who gathers the clouds spoke to him:’Do not sit beside me and whine, you double-faced liar. To me you are the most hateful of all gods who hold Olympos. Forever quarrelling is dear to your heart, wars and battles. And yet I will not long endure to see you in pain, since you are my child, and it was to me that your mother bore you. But were you born of some other god and proved so ruinous long since you would have been dropped beneath the gods of the bright sky. This ambivalence is expressed also in the god’s association with the Thracians , who were regarded by the Greeks as a barbarous and warlike people. Thrace was Ares’ birthplace, true home, and refuge after the affair with Aphrodite was exposed to the general mockery of the other gods. A late 6th-century BC funerary inscription from Attica emphasizes the consequences of coming under Ares’ sway. Stay and mourn at the tomb of dead Kroisos Whom raging Ares destroyed one day, fighting in the foremost ranks. In Macedonia , however, he was viewed as a bearded war veteran with superb military skills and physical strength. The ancient Macedonians looked up to Ares as a divine leader as well as a god. In Sparta Ares was viewed as a masculine soldier in which his resilience, physical strength and military intelligence was unrivaled. The birds of Ares (Ornithes Areioi) were a flock of feather-dart-dropping birds that guarded the Amazons’ shrine of the god on a coastal island in the Black Sea. Vultures and dogs, both of which prey upon carrion in the battlefield, were sacred to him. Although Ares received occasional sacrifice from armies going to war, the god had a formal temple and cult at only a few sites. At Sparta , however, youths each sacrificed a puppy to Enyalios before engaging in ritual fighting at the Phoebaeum. The chthonic night-time sacrifice of a dog to Enyalios became assimilated to the cult of Ares. Just east of Sparta stood an archaic statue of the god in chains, to show that the spirit of war and victory was never to leave the city. The temple to Ares in the agora of Athens that Pausanias saw in the second century AD had only been moved and rededicated there during the time of Augustus ; in essence it was a Roman temple to the Augustan Mars Ultor. The Areopagus , the “mount of Ares” where Paul of Tarsus preached, is sited at some distance from the Acropolis; from archaic times it was a site of trials. Its connection with Ares, perhaps based on a false etymology, is purely etiological myth. A second temple has also been located at the archaeological site of Metropolis in what is now Western Turkey. Deimos , “Terror” or “Dread”, and Phobos , “Fear”, are his companions in war and also his children, borne by Aphrodite , according to Hesiod. The sister and companion of the violent Ares is Eris , the goddess of discord, or Enyo , the goddess of war, bloodshed, and violence. Enyalius, rather than another name for Ares, in at least one tradition was his son by Enyo. Ares may also be accompanied by Kydoimos , the demon of the din of battle; the Makhai (“Battles”); thev “Hysminai” (“Acts of manslaughter”); Polemos , a minor spirit of war, or only an epithet of Ares, since it has no specific dominion; and Polemos’s daughter, Alala , the goddess or personification of the Greek war-cry, whose name Ares uses as his own war-cry. Ares’s sister Hebe , “Youth, ” also draws baths for him. According to Pausanias , local inhabitants of Therapne , Sparta , recognized Thero “feral, savage” as a nurse of Ares. One of the roles of Ares that was sited in mainland Greece itself was in the founding myth of Thebes: Ares was the progenitor of the water-dragon slain by Cadmus , for the dragon’s teeth were sown into the ground as if a crop and sprung up as the fully armored autochthonic Spartoi. To propitiate Ares, Cadmus took as a bride Harmonia , daughter of Ares’ union with Aphrodite, thus harmonizing all strife and founding the city of Thebes. The Areopagus as viewed from the Acropolis. The union of Ares and Aphrodite created the gods Eros , Anteros , Phobos , Deimos , Harmonia , and Adrestia. While Eros and Anteros’ godly stations favored their mother, Adrestia by far preferred to emulate her father, often accompanying him to war. Ares, upon one occasion, incurred the anger of Poseidon by slaying his son Halirrhothius , who had raped Alcippe, another daughter of the war-god. For this deed, Poseidon summoned Ares to appear before the tribunal of the Olympic gods, which was held upon a hill in Athens. Ares was acquitted, and this event is supposed to have given rise to the name Areopagus (or Hill of Ares), which afterward became famous as a court of justice. There are accounts of a son of Ares, Cycnus of Macedonia , who was so murderous that he tried to build a temple with the skulls and the bones of travellers. Heracles slaughtered this abominable monstrosity, engendering the wrath of Ares, whom the hero wounded. Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus. 218 268 was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268. He ruled during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire. While he won a number of military victories, he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. The exact birth date of Gallienus is unknown. The Greek chronicler John Malalas and the Epitome de Caesaribus report that he was about 50 years old at the time of his death, meaning he was born around 218. He was the son of emperor Valerian and Mariniana , who may have been of senatorial rank, possibly the daughter of Egnatius Victor Marinianus , and his brother was Valerianus Minor. Inscriptions on coins connect him with Falerii in Etruria , which may have been his birthplace; it has yielded many inscriptions relating to his mother’s family, the Egnatii. Gallienus married Cornelia Salonina about ten years before his accession to the throne. She was the mother of three princes: Valerian II , who died in 258; Saloninus , who was named co-emperor but was murdered in 260 by the army of general Postumus; and Marinianus , who was killed in 268, shortly after his father was assassinated. When Valerian was proclaimed Emperor on 22 October 253, he asked the Senate to ratify the elevation of Gallienus to Caesar and Augustus. He was also designated Consul Ordinarius for 254. As Marcus Aurelius and his adopted brother Lucius Verus had done a century earlier, Gallienus and his father divided the Empire. Valerian left for the East to stem the Persian threat, and Gallienus remained in Italy to repel the Germanic tribes on the Rhine and Danube. Division of the empire had become necessary due to its sheer size and the numerous threats it faced, and it facilitated negotiations with enemies who demanded to communicate directly with the emperor. Early reign and the revolt of Ingenuus. Gallienus spent most of his time in the provinces of the Rhine area (Germania Inferior , Germania Superior , Raetia , and Noricum), though he almost certainly visited the Danube area and Illyricum during 253 to 258. According to Eutropius and Aurelius Victor, he was particularly energetic and successful in preventing invaders from attacking the German provinces and Gaul, despite the weakness caused by Valerian’s march on Italy against Aemilianus in 253. According to numismatic evidence, he seems to have won many victories there, and a victory in Roman Dacia might also be dated to that period. Even the hostile Latin tradition attributes success to him at this time. In 255 or 257, Gallienus was made Consul again, suggesting that he briefly visited Rome on those occasions, although no record survives. During his Danube sojourn (Drinkwater suggests in 255 or 256), he proclaimed his elder son Valerian II Caesar and thus official heir to himself and Valerian I; the boy probably joined Gallienus on campaign at that time, and when Gallienus moved west to the Rhine provinces in 257, he remained behind on the Danube as the personification of Imperial authority. Ingenuus , governor of at least one of the Pannonian provinces, took advantage and declared himself emperor. Valerian II had apparently died on the Danube, most likely in 258. Ingenuus may have been responsible for that calamity. Alternatively, the defeat and capture of Valerian at the battle of Edessa may have been the trigger for the subsequent revolts of Ingenuus, Regalianus , and Postumus. In any case, Gallienus reacted with great speed. He left his son Saloninus as Caesar at Cologne , under the supervision of Albanus (or Silvanus) and the military leadership of Postumus. He then hastily crossed the Balkans , taking with him the new cavalry corps (comitatus) under the command of Aureolus and defeated Ingenuus at Mursa or Sirmium. The victory must be attributed mainly to the cavalry and its brilliant commander. Ingenuus was killed by his own guards or committed suicide by drowning himself after the fall of his capital, Sirmium. Invasion of the Alamanni. A major invasion by the Alemanni and other Germanic tribes occurred between 258 and 260 (it is hard to fix the precise date of these events), probably due to the vacuum left by the withdrawal of troops supporting Gallienus in the campaign against Ingenuus. Franks broke through the lower Rhine, invading Gaul , some reaching as far as southern Spain, sacking Tarraco (modern Tarragona). The Alamanni invaded, probably through Agri Decumates (an area between the upper Rhine and the upper Danube), likely followed by the Juthungi. After devastating Germania Superior and Raetia (parts of southern France and Switzerland), they entered Italy, the first invasion of the Italian peninsula, aside from its most remote northern regions, since Hannibal 500 years before. When invaders reached the outskirts of Rome, they were repelled by an improvised army assembled by the Senate, consisting of local troops (probably prtorian guards) and the strongest of the civilian population. On their retreat through northern Italy, they were intercepted and defeated in the battle of Mediolanum (near present day Milan) by Gallienus’ army, which had advanced from Gaul, or from the Balkans after dealing with the Franks. The battle of Mediolanum was decisive, and the Alamanni didn’t bother the empire for the next ten years. The Juthungi managed to cross the Alps with their valuables and captives from Italy. An historian in the 19th century suggested that the initiative of the Senate gave rise to jealousy and suspicion by Gallienus, thus contributing to his exclusion of senators from military commands. The revolt of Regalianus. Around the same time, Regalianus , a military commander of Illyricum , was proclaimed Emperor. The reasons for this are unclear, and the Historia Augusta (almost the sole resource for these events) does not provide a credible story. It is possible the seizure can be attributed to the discontent of the civilian and military provincials, who felt the defense of the province was being neglected. Regalianus held power for some six months and issued coins bearing his image. After some success against the Sarmatians , his revolt was put down by the invasion of Roxolani into Pannonia , and Regalianus himself was killed when the invaders took the city of Sirmium. There is a suggestion that Gallienus invited Roxolani to attack Regalianus, but other historians dismiss the accusation. It is also suggested that the invasion was finally checked by Gallienus near Verona and that he directed the restoration of the province, probably in person. Capture of Valerian, revolt of Macrianus. In the East, Valerian was confronted with serious troubles. A band of Scythians set a naval raid against Pontus , in the northern part of modern Turkey. After ravaging the province, they moved south into Cappadocia. Valerian led troops to intercept them but failed, perhaps because of a plague that gravely weakened his army, as well as the contemporary invasion of northern Mesopotamia by Shapur I , ruler of the Sassanid Empire. In 259 or 260, the Roman army was defeated in the Battle of Edessa , and Valerian was taken prisoner. Shapur’s army raided Cilicia and Cappadocia (in present day Turkey), sacking, as Shapur’s inscriptions claim, 36 cities. It took a rally by an officer Callistus (Balista), a fiscal official named Fulvius Macrianus , the remains of the Eastern Roman legions, and Odenathus and his Palmyrene horsemen to turn the tide against Shapur. The Persians were driven back, but Macrianus proclaimed his two sons Quietus and Macrianus (sometimes misspelled Macrinus) as emperors. Coins struck for them in major cities of the East indicate acknowledgement of the usurpation. The two Macriani left Quietus, Ballista, and, presumably, Odenathus to deal with the Persians while they invaded Europe with an army of 30,000 men, according to the Historia Augusta. At first they met no opposition. The Pannonian legions joined the invaders, being resentful of the absence of Gallienus. He sent his successful commander Aureolus against the rebels, however, and the decisive battle was fought in the spring or early summer of 261, most likely in Illyricum, although Zonaras locates it in Pannonia. In any case, the army of the usurpers surrendered, and their two leaders were killed. In the aftermath of the battle, the rebellion of Postumus had already started, so Gallienus had no time to deal with the rest of the usurpers, namely Balista and Quietus. Odenathus received the title of dux Romanorum and besieged the usurpers, who were based at Emesa. Eventually, the people of Emesa killed Quietus, and Odenathus arrested and executed Balista about November 261. The revolt of Postumus. After the defeat at Edessa, Gallienus lost control over the provinces of Britain, Spain, parts of Germania, and a large part of Gaul when another general, Postumus , declared his own realm (usually known today as the Gallic Empire). The revolt partially coincided with that of Macrianus in the East. Gallienus had installed his son Saloninus and his guardian, Silvanus , in Cologne in 258. Postumus, a general in command of troops on the banks of the Rhine, defeated some raiders and took possession of their spoils. Instead of returning it to the original owners, he preferred to distribute it amongst his soldiers. When news of this reached Silvanus, he demanded the spoils be sent to him. Postumus made a show of submission, but his soldiers mutinied and proclaimed him Emperor. Under his command, they besieged Cologne, and after some weeks the defenders of the city opened the gates and handed Saloninus and Silvanus to Postumus, who had them killed. The dating of these events is not accurate, but they apparently occurred just before the end of 260. Postumus claimed the consulship for himself and one of his associates, Honoratianus, but according to D. Potter, he never tried to unseat Gallienus or invade Italy. Upon receiving news of the murder of his son, Gallienus began gathering forces to face Postumus. The invasion of the Macriani forced him to dispatch Aureolus with a large force to oppose them, however, leaving him with insufficient troops to battle Postumus. After some initial defeats, the army of Aureolus, having defeated the Macriani, rejoined him, and Postumus was expelled. Aureolus was entrusted with the pursuit and deliberately allowed Postumus to escape and gather new forces. During the siege, Gallenus was severely wounded by an arrow and had to leave the field. The standstill persisted until the death of Gallienus, and the Gallic Empire remained independent until 274. The revolt of Aemilianus. In 262, the mint in. Who had already given support to the revolt of the Macriani. The correspondence of bishop. Provides a colourful commentary on the sombre background of invasion, civil war, plague, and famine that characterized this age. Knowing he could not afford to lose control of the vital Egyptian granaries, Gallienus sent his general Theodotus against Aemilianus, probably by a naval expedition. The decisive battle probably took place near Thebes, and the result was a clear defeat of Aemilianus. In the aftermath, Gallienus became Consul three more times in 262, 264, and 266. Herulian invasions, revolt of Aureolus, conspiracy and death. In the years 267269, Goths and other barbarians invaded the empire in great numbers. Sources are extremely confused on the dating of these invasions, the participants, and their targets. Modern historians are not even able to discern with certainty whether there were two or more of these invasions or a single prolonged one. It seems that, at first, a major naval expedition was led by the Heruli starting from north of the Black Sea and leading in the ravaging of many cities of Greece (among them, Athens and Sparta). Then another, even more numerous army of invaders started a second naval invasion of the empire. The Romans defeated the barbarians on sea first. Gallienus’ army then won a battle in Thrace , and the Emperor pursued the invaders. According to some historians, he was the leader of the army who won the great Battle of Naissus , while the majority believes that the victory must be attributed to his successor, Claudius II. In 268, at some time before or soon after the battle of Naissus, the authority of Gallienus was challenged by Aureolus , commander of the cavalry stationed in Mediolanum (Milan), who was supposed to keep an eye on Postumus. Instead, he acted as deputy to Postumus until the very last days of his revolt, when he seems to have claimed the throne for himself. The decisive battle took place at what is now Pontirolo Nuovo near Milan; Aureolus was clearly defeated and driven back to Milan. Gallienus laid siege to the city but was murdered during the siege. There are differing accounts of the murder, but the sources agree that most of Gallienus’ officials wanted him dead. According to the Historia Augusta , an unreliable source compiled long after the events it describes, a conspiracy was led by the commander of the guard Aurelius Heraclianus and Marcianus. Cecropius, commander of the Dalmatians, spread the word that the forces of Aureolus were leaving the city, and Gallienus left his tent without his bodyguard, only to be struck down by Cecropius. One version has Claudius selected as Emperor by the conspirators, another chosen by Gallienus on his death bed; the Historia Augusta was concerned to substantiate the descent of the Constantinianan dynasty from Claudius, and this may explain its accounts, which do not involve Claudius in the murder. The other sources Zosimus i. 40 and Zonaras xii. 25 report that the conspiracy was organized by Heraclianus, Claudius, and Aurelian. According to Aurelius Victor and Zonaras, on hearing the news that Gallienus was dead, the Senate in Rome ordered the execution of his family (including his brother Valerianus and son Marinianus) and their supporters, just before receiving a message from Claudius to spare their lives and deify his predecessor. Arch of Gallienus in Rome, 262 dedicated to, rather than built by, Gallienus. Gallienus was not treated favorably by ancient historians, partly due to the secession of Gaul and Palmyra and his inability to win them back. According to modern scholar Pat Southern, some historians now see him in a more positive light. Gallienus produced some useful reforms. He contributed to military history as the first to commission primarily cavalry units, the Comitatenses , that could be dispatched anywhere in the Empire in short order. This reform arguably created a precedent for the future emperors Diocletian and Constantine I. The biographer Aurelius Victor reports that Gallienus forbade senators from becoming military commanders. This policy undermined senatorial power, as more reliable equestrian commanders rose to prominence. In Southern’s view, these reforms and the decline in senatorial influence not only helped Aurelian to salvage the Empire, but they also make Gallienus one of the emperors most responsible for the creation of the Dominate , along with Septimius Severus , Diocletian, and Constantine I. By portraying himself with the attributes of the gods on his coinage, Gallienus began the final separation of the Emperor from his subjects. A late bust of Gallienus (see above) depicts him with a largely blank face, gazing heavenward, as seen on the famous stone head of Constantine I. One of the last rulers of Rome to be theoretically called “Princeps”, or First Citizen, Gallienus’ shrewd self-promotion assisted in paving the way for those who would be addressed with the words “Dominus et Deus” (Lord and God). Antoninianus issued to celebrate. LEG II ITAL VII P VII F. Italica Legio II seven times faithful and loyal. LEG III ITAL VI P VI F. LEG VII MAC VI P VI FI F. Macedonica Legio VII six times faithful and loyal. LEG VII CLA VI P VI F. Claudia Legio VII six. Was the Roman god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome. He was second in importance only to Jupiter , and he was the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Martius Latin), and in October, which began and ended the season for military campaigning and farming. Mars was identified with the Greek god Ares , whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars. But the character and dignity of Mars differed in fundamental ways from that of his Greek counterpart, who is often treated with contempt and revulsion in Greek literature. Mars was a part of the Archaic Triad along with Jupiter and Quirinus , the latter of whom as a guardian of the Roman people had no Greek equivalent. Mars’ altar in the Campus Martius , the area of Rome that took its name from him, was supposed to have been dedicated by Numa , the peace-loving semi-legendary second king of Rome. Although the center of Mars’ worship was originally located outside the sacred boundary of Rome (pomerium) , Augustus made the god a renewed focus of Roman religion by establishing the Temple of Mars Ultor in his new forum. Although Ares was viewed primarily as a destructive and destabilizing force, Mars represented military power as a way to secure peace , and was a father (pater) of the Roman people. In the mythic genealogy and founding myths of Rome , Mars was the father of Romulus and Remus with Rhea Silvia. His love affair with Venus symbolically reconciled the two different traditions of Rome’s founding; Venus was the divine mother of the hero Aeneas , celebrated as the Trojan refugee who “founded” Rome several generations before Romulus laid out the city walls. The importance of Mars in establishing religious and cultural identity within the Roman Empire is indicated by the vast number of inscriptions identifying him with a local deity, particularly in the Western provinces. Although Ares was the son of Zeus and Hera , Mars was the son of Juno alone. Jupiter had usurped the mother’s function when he gave birth to Minerva directly from his forehead (or mind); to restore the balance, Juno sought the advice of the goddess Flora on how to do the same. Flora obtained a magic flower (Latin flos , plural flores , a masculine word) and tested it on a heifer who became fecund at once. She then plucked a flower ritually using her thumb, touched Juno’s belly, and impregnated her. Juno withdrew to Thrace and the shore of Marmara for the birth. Ovid tells this story in the Fasti , his long-form poetic work on the Roman calendar. It may explain why the Matronalia , a festival celebrated by married women in honor of Juno as a goddess of childbirth , occurred on the first day of Mars’ month, which is also marked on a calendar from late antiquity as the birthday of Mars. In the earliest Roman calendar, March was the first month, and the god would have been born with the new year. Ovid is the only source for the story. He may be presenting a literary myth of his own invention, or an otherwise unknown archaic Italic tradition; either way, in choosing to include the story, he emphasizes that Mars was connected to plant life and was not alienated from female nurture. The consort of Mars was Nerio or Nerine, Valor. She represents the vital force (vis) , power (potentia) and majesty (maiestas) of Mars. Her name was regarded as Sabine in origin and is equivalent to Latin virtus , “manly virtue” (from vir , “man”). In the early 3rd century BC, the comic playwright Plautus has a reference to Mars greeting Nerio, his wife. A source from late antiquity says that Mars and Nerine were celebrated together at a festival held on March 23. In the later Roman Empire , Nerine came to be identified with Minerva. Nerio probably originates as a divine personification of Mars’ power, as such abstractions in Latin are generally feminine. Her name appears with that of Mars in an archaic prayer invoking a series of abstract qualities, each paired with the name of a deity. The influence of Greek mythology and its anthropomorphic gods may have caused Roman writers to treat these pairs as marriages. The union of Venus and Mars held greater appeal for poets and philosophers, and the couple were a frequent subject of art. In Greek myth, the adultery of Ares and Aphrodite had been exposed to ridicule when her husband Hephaestus (whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan) caught them in the act by means of a magical snare. Although not originally part of the Roman tradition, in 217 BC Venus and Mars were presented as a complementary pair in the lectisternium , a public banquet at which images of twelve major gods of the Roman state were presented on couches as if present and participating. Wall painting (mid-1st century AD) from which the House of Venus and Mars at Pompeii takes its name. Scenes of Venus and Mars in Roman art often ignore the adulterous implications of their union, and take pleasure in the good-looking couple attended by Cupid or multiple Loves (amores). Some scenes may imply marriage, and the relationship was romanticized in funerary or domestic art in which husbands and wives had themselves portrayed as the passionate divine couple. The uniting of deities representing Love and War lent itself to allegory , especially since the lovers were the parents of Harmonia. The Renaissance philosopher Marsilio Ficino notes that “only Venus dominates Mars, and he never dominates her”. In ancient Roman and Renaissance art, Mars is often shown disarmed and relaxed, or even sleeping, but the extramarital nature of their affair can also suggest that this peace is impermanent. Virility as a kind of life force (vis) or virtue (virtus) is an essential characteristic of Mars. As an agricultural guardian, he directs his energies toward creating conditions that allow crops to grow, which may include warding off hostile forces of nature. As an embodiment of masculine aggression, he is the force that drives wars but ideally, war that delivers a secure peace. The priesthood of the Arval Brothers called on Mars to drive off “rust” (lues) , with its double meaning of wheat fungus and the red oxides that affect metal, a threat to both iron farm implements and weaponry. In the surviving text of their hymn , the Arval Brothers invoked Mars as ferus , “savage” or “feral” like a wild animal. Mars’ potential for savagery is expressed in his obscure connections to the wild woodlands, and he may even have originated as a god of the wild, beyond the boundaries set by humans, and thus a force to be propitiated. In his book on farming , Cato invokes Mars Silvanus for a ritual to be carried out in silva , in the woods, an uncultivated place that if not held within bounds can threaten to overtake the fields needed for crops. Mars’ character as an agricultural god may derive solely from his role as a defender and protector, or may be inseparable from his warrior nature. As the leaping of his armed priests the Salii was meant to quicken the growth of crops. She-wolf and twins from an altar to Venus and Mars. The two wild animals most sacred to Mars were the woodpecker and the wolf, which in the natural lore of the Romans were said always to inhabit the same foothills and woodlands. Plutarch notes that the woodpecker (picus) is sacred to Mars because it is a courageous and spirited bird and has a beak so strong that it can overturn oaks by pecking them until it has reached the inmost part of the tree. As the beak of the picus Martius contained the god’s power to ward off harm, it was carried as a magic charm to prevent bee stings and leech bites. The bird of Mars also guarded a woodland herb (paeonia) used for treatment of the digestive or female reproductive systems ; those who sought to harvest it were advised to do so by night, lest the woodpecker jab out their eyes. The picus Martius seems to have been a particular species, but authorities differ on which one: perhaps Picus viridis or Dryocopus martius. The woodpecker was revered by the Latin peoples , who abstained from eating its flesh. It was one of the most important birds in Roman and Italic augury , the practice of reading the will of the gods through watching the sky for signs. The mythological figure named Picus had powers of augury that he retained when he was transformed into a woodpecker; in one tradition, Picus was the son of Mars. The Umbrian cognate peiqu also means “woodpecker, ” and the Italic Picenes were supposed to have derived their name from the picus who served as their guide animal during a ritual migration (ver sacrum) undertaken as a rite of Mars. In the territory of the Aequi , another Italic people, Mars had an oracle of great antiquity where the prophecies were supposed to be spoken by a woodpecker perched on a wooden column. Mars’ association with the wolf is familiar from what may be the most famous of Roman myths , the story of how a she-wolf (lupa) suckled his infant sons when they were exposed by order of their human uncle, who feared that they would take back the kingship he had usurped. The woodpecker also brought nourishment to the twins. The wolf appears elsewhere in Roman art and literature in masculine form as the animal of Mars. In Roman Gaul , the goose was associated with the Celtic forms of Mars , and archaeologists have found geese buried alongside warriors in graves. The goose was considered a bellicose animal because it is easily provoked to aggression. Ancient Greek and Roman religion distinguished between animals that were sacred to a deity and those that were prescribed as the correct sacrificial offerings for the god. Wild animals might be viewed as already belonging to the god to whom they were sacred, or at least not owned by human beings and therefore not theirs to give. Since sacrificial meat was eaten at a banquet after the gods received their portion mainly the entrails (exta) it follows that the animals sacrificed were most often, though not always, domestic animals normally part of the Roman diet. Gods often received castrated male animals as sacrifices, and the goddesses female victims ; Mars, however, regularly received intact males. Mars did receive oxen under a few of his cult titles, such as Mars Grabovius , but the usual offering was the bull, singly, in multiples, or in combination with other animals. The procession of the suovetaurilia , a sacrifice of a pig, ram, and bull, led by a priest with his head ritually covered. The two most distinctive animal sacrifices made to Mars were the suovetaurilia , a triple offering of a pig (sus) , ram (ovis) and bull (taurus) , and the October Horse , the only horse sacrifice known to have been carried out in ancient Rome and a rare instance of a victim the Romans considered inedible. The earliest center in Rome for cultivating Mars as a deity was the Altar of Mars (Ara Martis) in the Campus Martius (“Field of Mars”) outside the sacred boundary of Rome (pomerium). The Romans thought that this altar had been established by the semi-legendary Numa Pompilius , the peace-loving successor of Romulus. According to Roman tradition, the Campus Martius had been consecrated to Mars by their ancestors to serve as horse pasturage and an equestrian training ground for youths. During the Roman Republic (50927 BC), the Campus was a largely open expanse. No temple was built at the altar, but from 193 BC a covered walkway connected it to the Porta Fontinalis , near the office and archives of the Roman censors. Newly elected censors placed their curule chairs by the altar, and when they had finished conducting the census, the citizens were collectively purified with a suovetaurilia there. A frieze from the so-called “Altar” of Domitius Ahenobarbus is thought to depict the census, and may show Mars himself standing by the altar as the procession of victims advances. The main Temple of Mars (Aedes Martis) in the Republican period also lay outside the sacred boundary and was devoted to the god’s warrior aspect. It was built to fulfill a vow (votum) made by a Titus Quinctius in 388 BC during the Gallic siege of Rome. The founding day (dies natalis) was commemorated on June 1, and the temple is attested by several inscriptions and literary sources. The sculpture group of Mars and the wolves was displayed there. Soldiers sometimes assembled at the temple before heading off to war, and it was the point of departure for a major parade of Roman cavalry held annually on July 15. A temple to Mars in the Circus Flaminius was built around 133 BC, funded by Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus from war booty. It housed a colossal statue of Mars and a nude Venus. The Campus Martius continued to provide venues for equestrian events such as chariot racing during the Imperial period , but under the first emperor Augustus it underwent a major program of urban renewal, marked by monumental architecture. The Altar of Augustan Peace (Ara Pacis Augustae) was located there, as was the Obelisk of Montecitorio , imported from Egypt to form the pointer (gnomon) of the Solarium Augusti , a giant sundial. With its public gardens, the Campus became one of the most attractive places in the city to visit. Augustus chose the Campus Martius as the site of his new Temple to Mars Ultor, a manifestation of Mars he cultivated as the avenger (ultor) of the murder of Julius Caesar and of the military disaster suffered at the Battle of Carrhae. When the legionary standards lost to the Parthians were recovered, they were housed in the new temple. The date of the temple’s dedication on May 12 was aligned with the heliacal setting of the constellation Scorpio , the house of war. The date continued to be marked with circus games as late as the mid-4th century AD. A large statue of Mars was part of the short-lived Arch of Nero , which was built in 62 AD but dismantled after Nero’s suicide and disgrace (damnatio memoriae). Nude statue of Mars in a garden setting, as depicted on a wall painting from Pompeii. In Roman art , Mars is depicted as either bearded and mature, or young and clean-shaven. Even nude or seminude, he often wears a helmet or carries a spear as emblems of his warrior nature. Mars was among the deities to appear on the earliest Roman coinage in the late 4th and early 3rd century BC. On the Altar of Peace (Ara Pacis) , built in the last years of the 1st century BC, Mars is a mature man with a “handsome, classicizing ” face, and a short curly beard and moustache. His helmet is a plumed neo-Attic – type. He wears a military cloak (paludamentum) and a cuirass ornamented with a gorgoneion. Although the relief is somewhat damaged at this spot, he appears to hold a spear garlanded in laurel , symbolizing a peace that is won by military victory. The 1st-century statue of Mars found in the Forum of Nerva (pictured at top) is similar. In this guise, Mars is presented as the dignified ancestor of the Roman people. The panel of the Ara Pacis on which he appears would have faced the Campus Martius, reminding viewers that Mars was the god whose altar Numa established there, that is, the god of Rome’s oldest civic and military institutions. Particularly in works of art influenced by the Greek tradition , Mars may be portrayed in a manner that resembles Ares, youthful, beardless, and often nude. In the Renaissance, Mars’ nudity was thought to represent his lack of fear in facing danger. The spear of Mars. The spear is the instrument of Mars in the same way that Jupiter wields the lightning bolt, Neptune the trident, and Saturn the scythe or sickle. A relic or fetish called the spear of Mars was kept in a sacrarium at the Regia , the former residence of the Kings of Rome. The spear was said to move, tremble or vibrate at impending war or other danger to the state, as was reported to occur before the assassination of Julius Caesar. When Mars is pictured as a peace-bringer, his spear is wreathed with laurel or other vegetation, as on the Ara Pacis or a coin of Aemilianus. The high priest of Mars in Roman public religion was the Flamen Martialis , who was one of the three major priests in the fifteen-member college of flamens. Mars was also served by the Salii , a twelve-member priesthood of patrician youths who dressed as archaic warriors and danced in procession around the city in March. Both priesthoods extend to the earliest periods of Roman history, and patrician birth was required. The festivals of Mars cluster in his namesake month of March (Latin Martius), with a few observances in October, the beginning and end of the season for military campaigning and agriculture. Festivals with horse racing took place in the Campus Martius. Some festivals in March retained characteristics of new year festivals, since Martius was originally the first month of the Roman calendar. February 27: Equirria , involving chariot or horse races. March 1: Mars’ dies natalis (“birthday”), a feria also sacred to his mother Juno. March 14: a second Equirria, again with chariot races. March 14 or 15: Mamuralia , a new year festival when a figure called Mamurius Veturius (perhaps the “old Mars” of the old year) is driven out. March 17: an Agonium Martiale Agonalia or , an obscure type of observance held at other times for various deities. March 23: Tubilustrium , a purification of the deploying army March 23. October 15: the ritual of the October Horse , with a chariot race and Rome’s only known horse sacrifice. October 19: Armilustrium (“purification of arms”). Mars was also honored by chariot races at the Robigalia and Consualia , though these festivals are not primarily dedicated to him. From 217 BC onward, Mars was among the gods honored at the lectisternium , a banquet given for deities who were present as images. Roman hymns (carmina) are rarely preserved, but Mars is invoked in two. The Arval Brothers , or “Brothers of the Fields, ” chanted a hymn to Mars while performing their three-step dance. The Carmen Saliare was sung by Mars’ priests the Salii while they moved twelve sacred shields (ancilia) throughout the city in a procession. In the 1st century AD, Quintilian remarks that the language of the Salian hymn was so archaic that it was no longer fully understood. The so-called Mars of Todi (Etruscan bronze, late 5thearly 4th century BC), probably a warrior with hand extended to make an offering. The word Mrs (genitive Mrtis), which in Old Latin and poetic usage also appears as Mvors (Mvortis), is cognate with Oscan Mmers (Mmertos). The Old Latin form was believed to derive from an Italic Mworts , but can also be explained as deriving from Maris , the name of an Etruscan child-god ; scholars have varying views on whether the two gods are related, and if so how. Latin adjectives from the name of Mars are martius and martialis , from which derive English “martial” (as in “martial arts” or ” martial law “) and personal names such as “Martin”. Mars also gave his name to the third month in the Roman calendar , Martius , from which English “March” derives. In the most ancient Roman calendar, Martius was the first month. The planet Mars was named for him, and in some allegorical and philosophical writings, the planet and the god are endowed with shared characteristics. In many languages, Tuesday is named for the planet Mars or the war-god , in Latin Martis Dies (“Mars’ Day”), surviving in Romance languages as Martes (Spanish), Mardi (French), Martedi (Italian), Mari (Romanian), and Dimarts (Catalan). In Irish (Gaelic), the day is An Mháirt. The English word Tuesday derives from Old English “Tiwesdæg” and means “Tiw’s Day”, Tiw being the Old English form of the Proto-Germanic war god Tîwaz, or Týr in Norse. In Classical Roman religion , Mars was invoked under several titles, and the first Roman emperor Augustus thoroughly integrated Mars into Imperial cult. The 4th-century Latin historian Ammianus Marcellinus treats Mars as one of several classical Roman deities who remained “cultic realities” up to his own time. Mars, and specifically Mars Ultor, was among the gods who received sacrifices from Julian , the only emperor after the conversion of Constantine I to reject Christianity. In 363 AD, in preparation for the Siege of Ctesiphon , Julian sacrificed ten “very fine” bulls to Mars Ultor. The tenth bull violated ritual protocol by attempting to break free, and when killed and examined , produced ill omens , among the many that were read at the end of Julian’s reign. As represented by Ammianus, Julian swore never to make sacrifice to Mars againa vow kept with his death a month later. Gradivus was one of the gods by whom a general or soldiers might swear an oath to be valorous in battle. His temple outside the Porta Capena was where armies gathered. The archaic priesthood of Mars Gradivus was the Salii , the “leaping priests” who danced ritually in armor as a prelude to war. His cult title is most often taken to mean “the Strider” or “the Marching God, ” from gradus , step, march. The poet Statius addresses him as “the most implacable of the gods, ” but Valerius Maximus concludes his history by invoking Mars Gradivus as “author and support of the name’Roman'”: Gradivus is asked along with Capitoline Jupiter and Vesta , as the keeper of Rome’s perpetual flame to “guard, preserve, and protect” the state , the peace, and the princeps (the emperor Tiberius at the time). A source from late antiquity says that the wife of Gradivus was Nereia , the daughter of Nereus , and that he loved her passionately. Mars celebrated as peace-bringer on a Roman coin issued by Aemilianus. Mars Quirinus was the protector of the Quirites (“citizens” or “civilians”) as divided into curiae (citizen assemblies), whose oaths were required to make a treaty. As a guarantor of treaties, Mars Quirinus is thus a god of peace: When he rampages, Mars is called Gradivus , but when he’s at peace Quirinus. The deified Romulus was identified with Mars Quirinus. In the Archaic Triad of Jupiter , Mars, and Quirinus , however, Mars and Quirinus were two separate deities, though not perhaps in origin. Each of the three had his own flamen (specialized priest), but the functions of the Flamen Martialis and Flamen Quirinalis are hard to distinguish. Mars is invoked as Grabovius in the Iguvine Tables , bronze tablets written in Umbrian that record ritual protocols for carrying out public ceremonies on behalf of the city and community of Iguvium. The same title is given to Jupiter and to the Umbrian deity Vofionus. This triad has been compared to the Archaic Triad, with Vofionus equivalent to Quirinus. Tables I and VI describe a complex ritual that took place at the three gates of the city. After the auspices were taken, two groups of three victims were sacrificed at each gate. Mars Grabovius received three oxen. “Father Mars” or “Mars the Father” is the form in which the god is invoked in the agricultural prayer of Cato, and he appears with this title in several other literary texts and inscriptions. Mars Pater is among the several gods invoked in the ritual of devotio , by means of which a general sacrificed himself and the lives of the enemy to secure a Roman victory. Father Mars is the regular recipient of the suovetaurilia , the sacrifice of a pig (sus) , ram (ovis) and bull (taurus) , or often a bull alone. To Mars Pater other epithets were sometimes appended, such as Mars Pater Victor (“Father Mars the Victorious”), to whom the Roman army sacrificed a bull on March 1. Although pater and mater were fairly common as honorifics for a deity, any special claim for Mars as father of the Roman people lies in the mythic geneaology that makes him the divine father of Romulus and Remus. In the section of his farming book that offers recipes and medical preparations, Cato describes a votum to promote the health of cattle. Make an offering to Mars Silvanus in the forest (in silva) during the daytime for each head of cattle: 3 pounds of meal, 4½ pounds of bacon, 4½ pounds of meat, and 3 pints of wine. You may place the viands in one vessel, and the wine likewise in one vessel. Either a slave or a free man may make this offering. After the ceremony is over, consume the offering on the spot at once. A woman may not take part in this offering or see how it is performed. You may vow the vow every year if you wish. That Mars Silvanus is a single entity has been doubted. Invocations of deities are often list-like, without connecting words , and the phrase should perhaps be understood as “Mars and Silvanus”. Women were explicitly excluded from some cult practices of Silvanus, but not necessarily of Mars. William Warde Fowler , however, thought that the wild god of the wood Silvanus may have been “an emanation or offshoot” of Mars. Augustus created the cult of “Mars the Avenger” to mark two occasions: his defeat of the assassins of Caesar at Philippi in 42 BC, and the negotiated return of the Roman battle standards that had been lost to the Parthians at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC. The god is depicted wearing a cuirass and helmet and standing in a “martial pose, ” leaning on a lance he holds in his right hand. He holds a shield in his left hand The goddess Ultio , a divine personification of vengeance, had an altar and golden statue in his temple. The Temple of Mars Ultor, dedicated in 2 BC in the center of the Forum of Augustus , gave the god a new place of honor. Some rituals previously conducted within the cult of Capitoline Jupiter were transferred to the new temple, which became the point of departure for magistrates as they left for military campaigns abroad. Augustus required the Senate to meet at the temple when deliberating questions of war and peace. The temple also became the site at which sacrifice was made to conclude the rite of passage of young men assuming the toga virilis (“man’s toga”) around age 14. On various Imperial holidays , Mars Ultor was the first god to receive a sacrifice, followed by the Genius of the emperor. An inscription from the 2nd century records a vow to offer Mars Ultor a bull with gilded horns. Augustus or Augusta was appended far and wide, “on monuments great and small, ” to the name of gods or goddesses, including Mars. The honorific marks the affiliation of a deity with Imperial cult In Roman Spain (Hispania) , many of the statues and dedications to Mars Augustus were presented by members of the priesthood or sodality called the Augustales. These vows (vota) were usually fulfilled within a sanctuary of Imperial cult, or in a temple or precinct (templum) consecrated specifically to Mars. As with other deities invoked as Augustus , altars to Mars Augustus might be set up to further the wellbeing (salus) of the emperor, but some inscriptions suggest personal devotion. An inscription in the Alps records the gratitude of a slave who dedicated a statue to Mars Augustus as conservator corporis sui , the preserver of his own body, said to have been vowed ex iussu numinis ipsius , “by the order of the numen himself”. Mars Augustus appears in inscriptions at sites throughout the Empire, such as Baetica , Saguntum , and Emerita (Lusitania) in Roman Spain; Lepcis Magna (with a date of 67 AD) in present-day Libya ; and Sarmizegetusa in the province of Dacia. In addition to his cult titles at Rome, Mars appears in a large number of inscriptions in the provinces of the Roman Empire , and more rarely in literary texts, identified with a local deity by means of an epithet. Mars appears with great frequency in Gaul among the Continental Celts , as well as in Roman Spain and Britain. In Celtic settings, he is often invoked as a healer. The inscriptions indicate that Mars’ ability to dispel the enemy on the battlefield was transferred to the sick person’s struggle against illness; healing is expressed in terms of warding off and rescue. Mars is identified with a number of Celtic deities, some of whom are not attested independently. Mars Alator is attested in Roman Britain by an inscription found on an altar at South Shields , and a silver-gilt votive plaque that was part of the Barkway hoard from Hertfordshire. Alator has been interpreted variously as “Huntsman” or “Cherisher”. Mars Albiorix appears in an inscription from modern-day Sablet , in the province of Narbonensis. Albiorix probably means “King of the Land” or “King of the World”, with the first element related to the geographical name Albion and Middle Welsh elfydd, “world, land”. Mars Barrex is attested by a single dedicatory inscription found at Carlisle , England. Barrex or Barrecis probably means “Supreme One”(Gaulish barro- , “head”). Mars Belatucadrus is named in five inscriptions in the area of Hadrian’s Wall. The Celtic god Belatucadros , with various spellings, is attested independently in twenty additional inscriptions in northern England. Mars Braciaca appears in a single votive inscription at Bakewell , Derbyshire. The Celtic epithet may refer to malt or beer, though intoxication in Greco-Roman religion is associated with Dionysus. A reference in Pliny suggests a connection to Mars’ agricultural function, with the Gaulish word bracis referring to a type of wheat; a medieval Latin gloss says it was used to make beer. A bronze Mars from Gaul. Mars Camulus is found in five inscriptions scattered over a fairly wide geographical area. The Celtic god Camulos appears independently in one votive inscription from Rome. Mars Cocidius is found in five inscriptions from northern England. About twenty dedications in all are known for the Celtic god Cocidius , mainly made by Roman military personnel, and confined to northwest Cumbria and along Hadrian’s Wall. He is once identified with Silvanus. He is depicted on two votive plaques as a warrior bearing shield and spear, and on an altar as a huntsman accompanied by a dog and stag. Mars Condatis occurs in three inscriptions from Roman Britain. The cult title is probably related to the place name Condate , often used in Gaul for settlements at the confluence of rivers. The Celtic god Condatis is thought to have functions pertaining to water and healing. Mars Corotiacus is an equestrian Mars attested only on a votive from Martlesham in Suffolk. A bronze statuette depicts him as a cavalryman, armed and riding a horse which tramples a prostrate enemy beneath its hooves. Mars Lenus , or more often Lenus Mars, had a major healing cult at the capital of the Treveri (present-day Trier). Among the votives are images of children offering doves. His consort Ancamna is also found with the Celtic god Smertrios. The Celtic god Loucetios , Latinized as -ius , appears in nine inscriptions in present-day Germany and France and one in Britain, and in three as Leucetius. The Gaulish and Brythonic theonyms likely derive from Proto-Celtic louk(k)et- , “bright, shining, flashing, ” hence also “lightning, ” alluding to either a Celtic commonplace metaphor between battles and thunderstorms (Old Irish torannchless , the “thunder feat”), or the aura of a divinized hero (the lúan of Cú Chulainn). The name is given as an epithet of Mars. The consort of Mars Loucetius is Nemetona , whose name may be understood as pertaining either to “sacred privilege” or to the sacred grove (nemeton) , and who is also identified with the goddess Victory. At the Romano-British site in Bath , a dedication to Mars Loucetius as part of this divine couple was made by a pilgrim who had from the continental Treveri of Gallia Belgica to seek healing. Mars Mullo is invoked in two Armorican inscriptions pertaining to Imperial cult. The name of the Celtic god Mullo , which appears in a few additional inscriptions, has been analyzed variously as “mule” and “hill, heap”. Mars Neton or Neto was a Celtiberian god at Acci (modern Guadix). According to Macrobius , he wore a radiant crown like a sun god, because the passion to act with valor was a kind of heat. He may be connected to Irish Néit. Mars Nodens has a possible connection to the Irish mythological figure Nuada. The Celtic god Nodens was also interpreted as equivalent to several other Roman gods, including Mercury and Neptune. The name may have meant “catcher”, hence a fisher or hunter. Mars Ocelus had an altar dedicated by a junior army officer at Caerwent , and possibly a temple. He may be a local counterpart to Lenus. Mars Olloudius was depicted in a relief from Roman Britain without armor, in the guise of a Genius carrying a double cornucopia and holding a libation bowl (patera). Olloudius is found also at Ollioules in southern Gaul. Mars Rigisamus is found in two inscriptions, the earliest most likely the one at Avaricum (present-day Bourges , France) in the territory of the Bituriges. At the site of a villa at West Coker , Somerset, he received a bronze plaque votum. The Gaulish element rig- (very common at the end of names as -rix), found in later Celtic languages as rí , is cognate with Latin rex , “king” or more precisely “ruler”. Rigisamos is “supreme ruler” or “king of kings”. Mars Rigonemetis (“King of the Sacred Grove”). A dedication to Rigonemetis and the numen (spirit) of the Emperor inscribed on a stone was discovered at Nettleham (Lincolnshire) in 1961. Rigonemetis is only known from this site, and it seems he may have been a god belonging to the tribe of the Corieltauvi. “Mars the Victorious” appears among the Celtic Sequani. At a site within the territory of the Treveri , Ancamna was the consort of Mars Smertrius. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic god Teutates (Toutatis). A form of Mars invoked at Housesteads Roman Fort at Hadrian’s Wall , where his name is linked with two goddesses called the Alaisiagae. Anne Ross associated Thinesus with a sculpture, also from the fort, which shows a god flanked by goddesses and accompanied by a goose a frequent companion of war gods. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic god Visucius. A Celtic healer-god invoked at the curative spring shrine at Vichy (Allier) as a curer of eye afflictions. On images, the god is depicted as a Celtic warrior. “Mars Balearicus” is a name used in modern scholarship for small bronze warrior figures from Mallorca (one of the Balearic Islands) that are interpreted as representing the local Mars cult. These statuettes have been found within talayotic sanctuaries with extensive evidence of burnt offerings. “Mars” is fashioned as a lean, athletic nude lifting a lance and wearing a helmet, often conical; the genitals are perhaps semi-erect in some examples. Other bronzes at the sites represent the heads or horns of bulls, but the bones in the ash layers indicate that sheep, goats, and pigs were the sacrificial victims. Bronze horse-hooves were found in one sanctuary. Another site held an imported statue of Imhotep , the legendary Egyptian physician. These sacred precincts were still in active use when the Roman occupation began in 123 BC. They seem to have been astronomically oriented toward the rising or setting of the constellation Centaurus. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “GALLIENUS son of Valerian I 265AD Ancient Roman Coin Cult Mars w branch i34097″ is in sale since Tuesday, February 11, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
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